The World Health Organisation (WHO) is an arm of the United Nations which came into being in April, 1948 – itself currently headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. It plays an important role in stemming the spread of communicable diseases – such as HIV and malaria – and non-communicable health matters – such as sexual health and nutrition. The WHO, in addition to these vital roles, publishes a biannual list of essential medicines – encouraging nation states to prioritise these drugs due to their function, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness. The first such list was issued in 1977 and the latest edition was issued in April 2015 – from which the drugs listed below are based.

Exploratory Notes

The core list presents a list of minimum medicine needs for a basic health-care system, listing the most efficacious, safe and cost-effective medicines for priority conditions. Priority conditions are selected on the basis of current and estimated future public health relevance, and potential for safe and cost-effective treatment.

The complementary list presents essential medicines for priority diseases, for which specialized diagnostic or monitoring facilities, and/or specialist medical care, and/or specialist training are needed. In case of doubt medicines may also be listed as complementary on the basis of consistent higher costs or less attractive cost-effectiveness in a variety of settings.

The square box symbol () is primarily intended to indicate similar clinical performance within a pharmacological class. The listed medicine should be the example of the class for which there is the best evidence for effectiveness and safety. In some cases, this may be the first medicine that is licensed for marketing; in other instances, subsequently licensed compounds may be safer or more effective. Where there is no difference in terms of efficacy and safety data, the listed medicine should be the one that is generally available at the lowest price, based on international drug price information sources. Not all square boxes are applicable to medicine selection for children — see the second EMLc for details.

Therapeutic equivalence is indicated only on the basis of reviews of efficacy and safety and when consistent with WHO clinical guidelines. National lists should not use a similar symbol and should be specific in their final selection, which would depend on local availability and price.

The [a] symbol indicates that there is an age or weight restriction on use of the medicine; details for each medicine can be found in Table 1.1.

Where the [c] symbol is placed next to the complementary list it signifies that the medicine(s) require(s) specialist diagnostic or monitoring facilities, and/or specialist medical care, and/or specialist training for their use in children.

Where the [c] symbol is placed next to an individual medicine or strength of medicine it signifies that there is a specific indication for restricting its use to children.

The presence of an entry on the Essential Medicines List carries no assurance as to pharmaceutical quality. It is the responsibility of the relevant national or regional drug regulatory authority to ensure that each product is of appropriate pharmaceutical quality (including stability) and that, when relevant, different products are interchangeable.

For recommendations and advice concerning all aspects of the quality assurance of medicines see the WHO Medicines website: http://www.who.int/medicines/areas/quality_assurance

Medicines and dosage forms are listed in alphabetical order within each section and there is no implication of preference for one form over another. Standard treatment guidelines should be consulted for information on appropriate dosage forms.

The main terms used for dosage forms in the Essential Medicines List can be found in Table 1.2.

Definitions of many of these terms and pharmaceutical quality requirements applicable to the different categories are published in the current edition of The International Pharmacopoeia: http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/pharmacopoeia

1. ANAESTHETICS
1.1 General anaesthetics and oxygen
1.1.1 Inhalational medicines
halothane Inhalation
isoflurane Inhalation
nitrous oxide Inhalation
oxygen Inhalation (medicinal gas)
1.1.2 Injectable medicines
ketamine Injection: 50 mg (as hydrochloride)/ mL in 10- mL vial
propofol* Injection: 10 mg/mL; 20 mg/mL

*Thiopental may be used as an alternative depending on local availability and cost

1.2 Local anaesthetics
 bupivacaine Injection: 0.25%; 0.5% (hydrochloride) in vial

Injection for spinal anaesthesia: 0.5% (hydrochloride) in 4- mL ampoule to be mixed with 7.5% glucose solution

 lidocaine Injection: 1%; 2% (hydrochloride) in vial

Injection for spinal anaesthesia: 5% (hydrochloride) in 2- mL ampoule to be mixed with 7.5% glucose solution

Topical forms: 2% to 4% (hydrochloride)

lidocaine + epinephrine (adrenaline) Dental cartridge: 2% (hydrochloride) + epinephrine 1:80 000

Injection: 1%; 2% (hydrochloride or sulfate) + epinephrine 1:200 000 in vial

Complementary List
ephedrine Injection: 30 mg (hydrochloride)/mL in 1- mL ampoule. 

(For use in spinal anaesthesia during delivery, to prevent hypotension)

1.3 Preoperative medication and sedation for short-term procedures
atropine Injection: 1 mg (sulfate) in 1- mL ampoule
 midazolam Injection: 1 mg/mL

Oral liquid: 2 mg/mL [c]

Tablet: 7.5 mg; 15 mg

morphine Injection: 10 mg (sulfate or hydrochloride) in 1- mL ampoule.
2. MEDICINES FOR PAIN AND PALLIATIVE CARE
2.1 Non-opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIMs)
acetylsalicylic acid Suppository: 50 mg to 150 mg

Tablet: 100 mg to 500 mg

ibuprofen [a] Oral liquid: 200 mg/5 mL

Tablet: 200 mg; 400 mg; 600 mg

[a] Not in children less than 3 months

paracetamol* Oral liquid: 125 mg/5 mL

Suppository: 100 mg

Tablet: 100 mg to 500 mg

*Not recommended for anti-inflammatory use due to lack of proven benefit to that effect

2.2 Opioid analgesics
codeine Tablet: 30 mg (phosphate)
 morphine* Granules (slow-release; to mix with water): 20 mg – 200 mg (morphine sulfate)

Injection: 10 mg (morphine hydrochloride or morphine sulfate) in 1- mL ampoule

Oral liquid: 10 mg (morphine hydrochloride or morphine sulfate)/5  mL

Tablet (slow release): 10 mg–200mg (morphine hydrochloride or morphine sulfate)

Tablet (immediate release): 10 mg (morphine sulfate)

*Alternatives limited to hydromorphone and oxycodone

2.3 Medicines for other common symptoms in palliative care
amitriptyline Tablet: 10 mg; 25 mg; 75 mg
cyclizine [c] Injection: 50 mg/mL

Tablet: 50 mg

dexamethasone Injection: 4 mg/mL in 1- mL ampoule (as disodium phosphate salt)

Oral liquid: 2 mg/5 mL

Tablet: 2 mg [c]; 4 mg

diazepam Injection: 5 mg/mL

Oral liquid: 2 mg/5  mL

Rectal solution: 2.5 mg; 5 mg; 10 mg

Tablet: 5 mg; 10 mg

docusate sodium Capsule: 100 mg

Oral liquid: 50 mg/5  mL

fluoxetine [a] Solid oral dosage form: 20 mg (as hydrochloride)

[a] >8 years

haloperidol Injection: 5 mg in 1- mL ampoule

Oral liquid: 2 mg/mL

Solid oral dosage form: 0.5 mg; 2mg; 5 mg

hyoscine butylbromide Injection: 20 mg/mL
hyoscine hydrobromide [c] Injection: 400 micrograms/mL; 600 micrograms/mL

Transdermal patches: 1 mg/72 hours

lactulose [c] Oral liquid: 3.1–3.7 g/5 mL
loperamide Solid oral dosage form: 2 mg
metoclopramide Injection: 5 mg (hydrochloride)/mL in 2-mL ampoule

Oral liquid: 5 mg/5 mL

Solid oral form: 10 mg (hydrochloride)

midazolam Injection: 1 mg/mL; 5 mg/mL

Solid oral dosage form: 7.5 mg; 15 mg

Oral liquid: 2mg/ mL [c]

ondansetron [c] [a] Injection: 2 mg base/ mL in 2- mL ampoule (as hydrochloride)

Oral liquid: 4 mg base/5 mL

Solid oral dosage form: Eq 4 mg base; Eq 8 mg base

[a] >1 month

senna Oral liquid: 7.5 mg/5 mL
3. ANTIALLERGICS AND MEDICINES USED IN ANAPHYLAXIS
dexamethasone Injection: 4 mg/mL in 1- mL ampoule (as disodium phosphate salt)
epinephrine (adrenaline) Injection: 1 mg (as hydrochloride or hydrogen tartrate) in 1- mL ampoule
hydrocortisone Powder for injection: 100 mg (as sodium succinate)in vial
 loratadine * Oral liquid: 1 mg/mL

Tablet: 10 mg

*There may be a role for sedating antihistamines for limited indications (EMLc)

 prednisolone Oral liquid: 5 mg/ mL [c]

Tablet: 5 mg; 25 mg

4. ANTIDOTES AND OTHER SUBSTANCES USED IN POISONINGS
4.1 Non-specific
charcoal, activated Powder
4.2 Specific
acetylcysteine Injection: 200 mg/mL in 10- mL ampoule

Oral liquid: 10% [c]; 20% [c]

atropine Injection: 1 mg (sulfate) in 1- mL ampoule
calcium gluconate Injection: 100 mg/mL in 10- mL ampoule
methylthioninium chloride (methylene blue) Injection: 10 mg/mL in 10- mL ampoule
naloxone Injection: 400 micrograms (hydrochloride) in 1- mL ampoule
penicillamine Solid oral dosage form: 250 mg
potassium ferric hexacyano-ferrate(II) – 2H2O(Prussian blue) Powder for oral administration
sodium nitrite Injection: 30 mg/mL in 10- mL ampoule
sodium thiosulfate Injection: 250 mg/mL in 50- mL ampoule
Complementary List
deferoxamine Powder for injection: 500 mg (mesilate) in vial
dimercaprol Injection in oil: 50 mg/mL in 2- mL ampoule
fomepizole Injection: 5 mg/mL (sulfate) in 20- mL ampoule or 1 g/mL (base) in 1.5- mL ampoule
sodium calcium edetate Injection: 200 mg/mL in 5- mL ampoule
succimer Solid oral dosage form: 100 mg
5. ANTICONVULSANTS/ANTIEPILEPTICS
carbamazepine Oral liquid: 100 mg/5 mL

Tablet (chewable): 100 mg; 200 mg

Tablet (scored): 100 mg; 200 mg

diazepam Gel or rectal solution: 5 mg/mL in 0.5  mL; 2- mL; 4-mL tubes
 lorazepam Parenteral formulation: 2 mg/mL in 1- mL ampoule; 4 mg/ mL in 1- mL ampoule
magnesium sulfate* Injection: 0.5g/mL in 2- mL ampoule (equivalent to 1 g in 2 mL; 50% weight/volume); 0.5g/mL in 10- mL ampoule (equivalent to 5 g in 10 mL; 50% weight/volume)

*For use in eclampsia and severe pre-eclampsia and not for other convulsant disorders

midazolam Solution for oromucosal administration:  5 mg/mL; 10 mg/mL

Ampoule*: 1 mg/mL; 10 mg/mL

*for buccal administration when solution for oromucosal administration is not available

phenobarbital Injection: 200 mg/mL (sodium)

Oral liquid: 15 mg/5 mL

Tablet: 15 mg to 100 mg

phenytoin Injection: 50 mg/mL in 5- mL vial (sodium salt)

Oral liquid: 25 mg to 30 mg/5 mL*

Solid oral dosage form: 25 mg; 50 mg; 100 mg (sodium salt)

Tablet (chewable): 50 mg

*The presence of both 25 mg/5  mL and 30 mg/5 mL strengths on the same market would cause confusion in prescribing and dispensing and should be avoided

valproic acid (sodium valproate) Oral liquid: 200 mg/5 mL

Tablet (crushable): 100 mg

Tablet (enteric-coated): 200 mg; 500 mg (sodium valproate)

Complementary List
ethosuximide Capsule: 250 mg

Oral liquid: 250 mg/5 mL

valproic acid (sodium valproate) Injection: 100 mg/mL in 4- mL ampoule; 100 mg/mL in 10- mL ampoule
6. ANTI-INFECTIVE MEDICINES
6.1 Anthelminthics
6.1.1 Intestinal anthelminthics
albendazole Tablet (chewable): 400 mg
levamisole Tablet: 50 mg; 150 mg (as hydrochloride)
mebendazole Tablet (chewable): 100 mg; 500 mg
niclosamide Tablet (chewable): 500 mg
praziquantel Tablet: 150 mg; 600 mg
pyrantel Oral liquid: 50 mg (as embonate or pamoate)/mL

Tablet (chewable): 250 mg (as embonate or pamoate)

6.1.2 Antifilarials
albendazole Tablet (chewable): 400 mg
diethylcarbamazine Tablet: 50 mg; 100 mg (dihydrogen citrate)
ivermectin Tablet (scored): 3 mg
6.1.3 Antischistosomals and other antitrematode medicines
praziquantel Tablet: 600 mg
triclabendazole Tablet: 250 mg
Complementary List
oxamniquine* Capsule: 250 mg

Oral liquid: 250 mg/5 mL

*Oxamniquine is listed for use when praziquantel treatment fails

6.2 Antibacterials
6.2.1 Beta-lactam medicines
amoxicillin Powder for oral liquid: 125 mg (as trihydrate)/5 mL; 250 mg (as trihydrate)/5 mL [c]

Solid oral dosage form: 250 mg; 500 mg (as trihydrate)

amoxicillin + clavulanic acid Oral liquid: 125 mg amoxicillin + 31.25 mg clavulanic acid/5 mL AND 250 mg amoxicillin + 62.5 mg clavulanic acid/5 mL [c]

Tablet: 500 mg (as trihydrate) + 125 mg (as potassium salt)

ampicillin Powder for injection: 500 mg; 1 g (as sodium salt) in vial
benzathine benzylpenicillin Powder for injection: 900 mg benzylpenicillin (= 1.2 million IU) in 5- mL vial [c]; 1.44 g benzylpenicillin (= 2.4 million IU) in 5- mL vial
benzylpenicillin Powder for injection: 600 mg (= 1 million IU); 3 g (= 5 million IU) (sodium or potassium salt) in vial
cefalexin [c] Powder for reconstitution with water: 125 mg/5 mL; 250 mg/5 mL (anhydrous)

Solid oral dosage form: 250 mg (as monohydrate)

 cefazolin* [a] Powder for injection: 1 g (as sodium salt) in vial

*For surgical prophylaxis

[a] >1 month

cefixime* Capsule: 400 mg (as trihydrate)

*Listed only for single-dose treatment of uncomplicated anogenital gonorrhoea

ceftriaxone* [a] Powder for injection: 250 mg; 1 g (as sodium salt) in vial

*Do not administer with calcium and avoid in infants with hyperbilirubinaemia

[a] >41 weeks corrected gestational age

 cloxacillin Capsule: 500 mg; 1 g (as sodium salt)

Powder for injection: 500 mg (as sodium salt) in vial

Powder for oral liquid: 125 mg (as sodium salt)/5 mL

phenoxymethylpenicillin Powder for oral liquid: 250 mg (as potassium salt)/5 mL

Tablet: 250 mg (as potassium salt)

procaine benzylpenicillin* Powder for injection: 1 g (=1 million IU); 3 g (=3 million IU) in vial

*Procaine benzylpenicillin is not recommended as first-line treatment for neonatal sepsis except in settings with high neonatal mortality, when given by trained health workers in cases where hospital care is not achievable

Complementary List
cefotaxime* [c] Powder for injection: 250 mg per vial (as sodium salt)

*3rd generation cephalosporin of choice for use in hospitalized neonates

ceftazidime Powder for injection: 250 mg or 1 g (as pentahydrate) in vial
imipenem* + cilastatin* Powder for injection: 250 mg (as monohydrate) + 250 mg (as sodium salt); 500 mg (as monohydrate) + 500 mg (as sodium salt) in vial

*Listed only for the treatment of life-threatening hospital-based infection due to suspected or proven multidrug-resistant infection

Meropenem is indicated for the treatment of meningitis and is licensed for use in children over the age of 3 months

6.2.2 Other antibacterials
azithromycin* Capsule: 250 mg; 500 mg (anhydrous)

Oral liquid: 200 mg/5 mL

*Only listed for single-dose treatment of genital Chlamydia trachomatis and of trachoma

chloramphenicol Capsule: 250 mg

Oily suspension for injection*: 0.5 g (as sodium succinate)/ mL in 2- mL ampoule

*Only for the presumptive treatment of epidemic meningitis in children older than 2 years

Oral liquid: 150 mg (as palmitate)/5 mL

Powder for injection: 1 g (sodium succinate) in vial

 ciprofloxacin* Oral liquid: 250 mg/5 mL (anhydrous) [c]

Solution for IV infusion: 2 mg/ mL (as hyclate) [c]

Tablet: 250 mg (as hydrochloride)

*Square box applies to adults only

clarithromycin* Solid oral dosage form: 500 mg

*For use in combination regimens for eradication of H. Pylori in adults

doxycycline [a] Oral liquid: 25 mg/5 mL [c]; 50 mg/5  mL (anhydrous) [c]

Solid oral dosage form: 50 mg [c]; 100 mg (as hyclate)

[a] Use in children

 erythromycin Powder for injection: 500 mg (as lactobionate) in vial

Powder for oral liquid: 125 mg/5  mL (as stearate or estolate or ethyl succinate)

Solid oral dosage form: 250 mg (as stearate or estolate or ethyl succinate)

 gentamicin Injection: 10 mg; 40 mg (as sulfate)/ mL in 2- mL vial
 metronidazole Injection: 500 mg in 100- mL vial

Oral liquid: 200 mg (as benzoate)/5 mL

Suppository: 500 mg; 1 g

Tablet: 200 mg to 500 mg

nitrofurantoin Oral liquid: 25 mg/5 mL [c]

Tablet: 100 mg

spectinomycin Powder for injection: 2 g (as hydrochloride) in vial
sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim Injection:

80 mg + 16 mg/ mL in 5- mL ampoule;
80 mg + 16 mg/ mL in 10- mL ampoule

Oral liquid: 200 mg + 40 mg/5  mL

Tablet: 100 mg + 20 mg; 400 mg + 80 mg; 800 mg + 160 mg

trimethoprim [a] Oral liquid: 50 mg/5 mL [c]

Tablet: 100 mg; 200 mg

[a] >6 months

Complementary List
clindamycin Capsule: 150 mg (as hydrochloride)

Injection: 150 mg (as phosphate)/mL

Oral liquid: 75 mg/5 mL (as palmitate) [c]

vancomycin Powder for injection: 250 mg (as hydrochloride) in vial
6.2.3 Antileprosy medicines
Medicines used in the treatment of leprosy should never be used except in combination. Combination therapy is essential to prevent the emergence of drug resistance. Colour-coded blister packs (MDT blister packs) containing standard two-medicine (paucibacillary leprosy) or three-medicine (multibacillary leprosy) combinations for adult and childhood leprosy should be used. MDT blister packs can be supplied free of charge through WHO
clofazimine Capsule: 50 mg; 100 mg
dapsone Tablet: 25 mg; 50 mg; 100 mg
rifampicin Solid oral dosage form: 150 mg; 300 mg
6.2.4 Antituberculosis medicines
WHO recommends and endorses the use of fixed-dose combinations and the development of appropriate new fixed-dose combinations, including modified dosage forms, non-refrigerated products and paediatric dosage forms of assured pharmaceutical quality
ethambutol Oral liquid: 25 mg/ mL [c]

Tablet: 100 mg to 400 mg (hydrochloride)

ethambutol + isoniazid Tablet: 400 mg + 150 mg
ethambutol + isoniazid + pyrazinamide + rifampicin Tablet: 275 mg + 75 mg + 400 mg + 150 mg
ethambutol + isoniazid + rifampicin Tablet: 275 mg + 75 mg + 150 mg
isoniazid Oral liquid: 50 mg/5 mL [c]

Tablet: 100 mg to 300 mg

Tablet (scored): 50 mg

isoniazid + pyrazinamide + rifampicin Tablet:

75 mg + 400 mg + 150 mg
150 mg + 500 mg + 150 mg (For intermittent use three times weekly)

isoniazid + rifampicin Tablet:

75 mg + 150 mg; 150 mg + 300 mg
60 mg + 60 mg (For intermittent use three times weekly)
150 mg + 150 mg (For intermittent use three times weekly)

pyrazinamide Oral liquid: 30 mg/ mL [c]

Tablet: 400 mg

Tablet (dispersible): 150 mg

Tablet (scored): 150 mg

rifabutin Capsule: 150 mg*

*For use only in patients with HIV receiving protease inhibitors

rifampicin Oral liquid: 20 mg/ mL [c]

Solid oral dosage form: 150 mg; 300 mg

rifapentine* Tablet:  150 mg

*For treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI) only

streptomycin Powder for injection: 1 g (as sulfate) in vial
Complementary List
Reserve second-line drugs for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) should be used in specialized centres adhering to WHO standards for TB control.
amikacin Powder for injection: 100 mg; 500 mg; 1 g (as sulfate) in vial
bedaquiline Tablet:  100 mg
capreomycin Powder for injection: 1 g (as sulfate) in vial
cycloserine* Solid oral dosage form: 250 mg

*Terizidone may be an alternative

delamanid Tablet:  50 mg
ethionamide* Tablet: 125 mg; 250 mg

*Protionamide may be an alternative

kanamycin Powder for injection: 1 g (as sulfate) in vial
levofloxacin* Tablet: 250mg; 500 mg; 750 mg

*Ofloxacin and moxifloxacin may be alternatives based on availability and programme considerations

linezolid Injection for intravenous administration: 2 mg/mL in 300 mL bag

Powder for oral liquid: 100 mg/5 mL

Tablet: 400 mg; 600 mg

p-aminosalicylic acid Granules: 4 g in sachet

Tablet: 500 mg

streptomycin [c] Powder for injection: 1 g (as sulfate) in vial
6.3 Antifungal medicines
amphotericin B Powder for injection: 50 mg in vial (as sodium deoxycholate or liposomal complex)
clotrimazole Vaginal cream: 1%; 10%

Vaginal tablet: 100 mg; 500 mg

 fluconazole Capsule: 50 mg

Injection: 2 mg/ mL in vial

Oral liquid: 50 mg/5 mL

flucytosine Capsule: 250 mg

Infusion: 2.5 g in 250 mL

griseofulvin Oral liquid: 125 mg/5 mL [c]

Solid oral dosage form: 125 mg; 250 mg

nystatin Lozenge: 100 000 IU

Oral liquid: 50 mg/5  mL [c]; 100 000 IU/ mL [c]

Pessary: 100 000 IU

Tablet: 100 000 IU; 500 000 IU

Complementary List
potassium iodide Saturated solution
6.4 Antiviral medicines
6.4.1 Antiherpes medicines
 aciclovir Oral liquid: 200 mg/5 mL [c]

Powder for injection: 250 mg (as sodium salt) in vial

Tablet: 200 mg

6.4.2 Antiretrovirals
Based on current evidence and experience of use, medicines in the following three classes of antiretrovirals are included as essential medicines for treatment and prevention of HIV (prevention of mother-to-child transmission and post-exposure prophylaxis). WHO emphasizes the importance of using these products in accordance with global and national guidelines.  WHO recommends and endorses the use of fixed-dose combinations and the development of appropriate new fixed-dose combinations, including modified dosage forms, non-refrigerated products and paediatric dosage forms of assured pharmaceutical quality.

Scored tablets can be used in children and therefore can be considered for inclusion in the listing of tablets, provided that adequate quality products are available.

6.4.2.1 Nucleoside/Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors
abacavir (ABC) Oral liquid: 100 mg (as sulfate)/5 mL

Tablet: 300 mg (as sulfate)

lamivudine (3TC) Oral liquid: 50 mg/5 mL

Tablet: 150 mg

stavudine (d4T) Capsule: 15 mg; 20 mg; 30 mg

Powder for oral liquid: 5 mg/5 mL

tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) Tablet: 300 mg (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate – equivalent to 245 mg tenofovir disoproxil).
zidovudine (ZDV or AZT) Capsule: 100 mg; 250 mg

Oral liquid: 50 mg/5 mL

Solution for IV infusion injection: 10 mg/ mL in 20- mL vial

Tablet: 300 mg

6.4.2.2 Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
efavirenz (EFV or EFZ) [a] Capsule: 50 mg; 100 mg; 200 mg

Tablet: 200 mg (scored); 600 mg

[a] >3 years or >10 kg weight

nevirapine (NVP) Oral liquid: 50 mg/5 mL

Tablet: 50 mg (dispersible); 200 mg

6.4.2.3 Protease inhibitors
Selection of protease inhibitor(s) from the Model List will need to be determined by each country after consideration of international and national treatment guidelines and experience. Ritonavir is recommended for use in combination as a pharmacological booster, and not as an antiretroviral in its own right. All other protease inhibitors should be used in boosted forms (e.g. with ritonavir).
atazanavir [a] Solid oral dosage form: 100 mg; 150 mg; 300 mg (as sulfate)

[a] >25 kg

darunavir [a] Tablet:  75 mg; 400 mg; 600 mg; 800 mg

[a] >3 years

lopinavir + ritonavir (LPV/r) Oral liquid: 400 mg + 100 mg/5 mL

Tablet (heat stable): 100 mg + 25 mg;

200 mg + 50 mg

ritonavir Oral liquid: 400 mg/5 mL

Tablet (heat stable): 25 mg; 100 mg

saquinavir (SQV) [a] Solid oral dosage form: 200 mg; 500 mg (as mesilate)

[a] >25 kg

FIXED-DOSE COMBINATIONS
abacavir + lamivudine Tablet (dispersible, scored):  60 mg (as sulfate) + 30 mg
efavirenz + emtricitabine* + tenofovir Tablet: 600 mg + 200 mg + 300 mg (disoproxil fumarate equivalent to 245 mg tenofovir disoproxil)

*Emtricitabine (FTC) is an acceptable alternative to 3TC, based on knowledge of the pharmacology, the resistance patterns and clinical trials of antiretrovirals

emtricitabine* + tenofovir Tablet: 200 mg + 300 mg (disoproxil fumarate equivalent to 245 mg tenofovir disoproxil)

*Emtricitabine (FTC) is an acceptable alternative to 3TC, based on knowledge of the pharmacology, the resistance patterns and clinical trials of antiretrovirals

lamivudine + nevirapine + stavudine Tablet: 150 mg + 200 mg + 30 mg

Tablet (dispersible): 30 mg + 50 mg + 6 mg [c]

lamivudine + nevirapine + zidovudine Tablet: 30 mg + 50 mg + 60 mg [c]; 150 mg + 200 mg
+ 300 mg
lamivudine + zidovudine Tablet: 30 mg + 60 mg [c]; 150 mg + 300 mg
6.4.3 Other antivirals
oseltamivir* Capsule: 30 mg; 45 mg; 75 mg (as phosphate)

Oral powder: 12 mg/mL

*potentially severe or complicated illness due to confirmed or suspected influenza virus infection in accordance with WHO treatment guidelines

ribavirin* Injection for intravenous administration: 800 mg and 1 g in 10- mL phosphate buffer solution

Solid oral dosage form: 200 mg; 400 mg; 600 mg

*For the treatment of viral haemorrhagic fevers

valganciclovir* Tablet:  450 mg

*For the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVr)

6.4.4 Antihepatitis medicines
6.4.4.1 Medicines for hepatitis B
6.4.4.1.1 Nucleoside/Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors
entecavir Oral liquid:  0.05 mg/ mL

Tablet:  0.5 mg; 1 mg

tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) Tablet: 300 mg (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate – equivalent to 245 mg tenofovir disoproxil)
6.4.4.2 Medicines for hepatitis C
Based on current evidence, medicines in the following classes of direct acting antiviral medicines are included as essential medicines for treatment of hepatitis C virus infection.  WHO guidelines recommend specific combination therapy  utilizing medicines from different classes.
6.4.4.2.1 Nucleotide polymerase inhibitors
sofosbuvir Tablet: 400 mg
6.4.4.2.2 Protease inhibitors
simeprevir Capsule: 150 mg
6.4.4.2.3 NS5A inhibitors
daclatasvir Tablet: 30 mg; 60 mg (as hydrochloride)
6.4.4.2.4 Non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitors
dasabuvir Tablet: 250 mg
6.4.4.2.5 Other antivirals
ribavirin* Injection for intravenous administration: 800 mg and 1 g in 10- mL phosphate buffer solution

Solid oral dosage form: 200 mg; 400 mg; 600 mg

*For the treatment of hepatitis C, in combination with peginterferon and/or direct acting anti-viral medicines

Complementary List
pegylated interferon alfa (2a or 2b)* Vial or prefilled syringe:

180 micrograms (peginterferon alfa-2a)

80 microgram, 100 microgram (peginterferon alfa-2b)

*To be used in combination with ribavirin

FIXED-DOSE COMBINATIONS
Alternative combinations of DAAs from different pharmacological classes are possible
ledipasvir + sofosbuvir Tablet: 90 mg + 400 mg
ombitasvir + paritaprevir + ritonavir Tablet: 12.5 mg + 75 mg + 50 mg
6.5 Antiprotozoal medicines
6.5.1 Antiamoebic and antigiardiasis medicines
diloxanide [a] Tablet: 500 mg (furoate)

[a] >25 kg

 metronidazole Injection: 500 mg in 100- mL vial

Oral liquid: 200 mg (as benzoate)/5 mL

Tablet: 200 mg to 500 mg

6.5.2 Antileishmaniasis medicines
amphotericin B Powder for injection: 50 mg in vial (as sodium deoxycholate or liposomal complex)
miltefosine Solid oral dosage form: 10 mg; 50 mg
paromomycin Solution for intramuscular injection: 750 mg of paromomycin base (as the sulfate)
sodium stibogluconate or meglumine antimoniate Injection: 100 mg/ mL, 1 vial = 30  mL or 30%, equivalent to approximately 8.1% antimony (pentavalent) in 5- mL ampoule
6.5.3 Antimalarial medicines
6.5.3.1 For curative treatment
Medicines for the treatment of P. falciparum malaria cases should be used in combination. The list currently recommends combinations according to treatment guidelines.  WHO recognizes that not all of the fixed dose combinations (FDCs) in the WHO treatment guidelines exist, and encourages their development and rigorous testing. WHO also encourages development and testing of rectal dosage formulations
amodiaquine* Tablet: 153 mg or 200 mg (as hydrochloride)

*To be used in combination with artesunate 50 mg

artemether* Oily injection: 80 mg/ mL in 1- mL ampoule

*For use in the management of severe malaria

artemether + lumefantrine* Tablet: 20 mg + 120 mg

Tablet (dispersible): 20 mg + 120 mg [c]

*Not recommended in the first trimester of pregnancy or in children below 5 kg

artesunate* Injection: ampoules, containing 60 mg anhydrous artesunic acid with a separate ampoule of 5% sodium bicarbonate solution
For use in the management of severe malariaRectal dosage form: 50 mg [c]; 200 mg capsules (for pre-referral treatment of severe malaria only; patients should be taken to an appropriate health facility for follow-up care) [c]Tablet: 50 mg*To be used in combination with either amodiaquine, mefloquine or sulfadoxine + pyrimethamine
artesunate + amodiaquine* Tablet: 25 mg + 67.5 mg; 50 mg + 135 mg; 100 mg + 270 mg

*Other combinations that deliver the target doses required such as 153 mg or 200 mg (as hydrochloride) with 50 mg artesunate can be alternatives

artesunate + mefloquine Tablet: 25 mg + 55 mg; 100 mg + 220 mg
chloroquine* Oral liquid: 50 mg (as phosphate or sulfate)/5 mL

Tablet: 100 mg; 150 mg (as phosphate or sulfate)

*For use only for the treatment of P.vivax infection

doxycycline* Capsule: 100 mg (as hydrochloride or hyclate)

Tablet (dispersible): 100 mg (as monohydrate)

*For use only in combination with quinine

mefloquine* Tablet: 250 mg (as hydrochloride)

*To be used in combination with artesunate 50 mg

primaquine* Tablet: 7.5 mg; 15 mg (as diphosphate)

*Only for use to achieve radical cure of P.vivax and P.ovale infections, given for 14 days

quinine* Injection: 300 mg quinine hydrochloride/mL in 2-mL ampoule

Tablet: 300 mg (quinine sulfate) or 300 mg (quinine bisulfate)

*For use only in the management of severe malaria, and should be used in combination with doxycycline

sulfadoxine + pyrimethamine* Tablet: 500 mg + 25 mg

*Only in combination with artesunate 50 mg

6.5.3.2 For prophylaxis
chloroquine* Oral liquid: 50 mg (as phosphate or sulfate)/5 mL

Tablet: 150 mg (as phosphate or sulfate)

*For use only in central American regions, for P.vivax infections

doxycycline [a] Solid oral dosage form: 100 mg (as hydrochloride or hyclate)

[a] >8 years

mefloquine [a] Tablet: 250 mg (as hydrochloride)

[a] >5 kg or >3 months

proguanil* Tablet: 100 mg (as hydrochloride)

*For use only in combination with chloroquine

6.5.4 Antipneumocystosis and antitoxoplasmosis medicines
pyrimethamine Tablet: 25 mg
sulfadiazine Tablet: 500 mg
sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim Injection:

80 mg + 16 mg/mL in 5- mL ampoule;
80 mg + 16 mg/mL in 10- mL ampoule

Oral liquid: 200 mg + 40 mg/5  mL [c]

Tablet: 100 mg + 20 mg; 400 mg + 80 mg [c]

Complementary List
pentamidine Tablet: 200 mg; 300 mg (as isethionate)
6.5.5 Antitrypanosomal medicines
6.5.5.1 African trypanosomiasis
Medicines for the treatment of 1st stage African trypanosomiasis
pentamidine* Powder for injection: 200 mg (as isetionate) in vial

*To be used for the treatment of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection

suramin sodium* Powder for injection: 1 g in vial

*To be used for the treatment of the initial phase of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infection

Medicines for the treatment of 2nd stage African trypanosomiasis
eflornithine* Injection: 200 mg (hydrochloride)/mL in 100-mL bottle

*To be used for the treatment of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection

melarsoprol Injection: 3.6% solution, 5-mL ampoule (180 mg of active compound)
nifurtimox* Tablet: 120 mg

*Only to be used in combination with eflornithine, for the treatment of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection

Complementary List [c]
melarsoprol Injection: 3.6% solution in 5- mL ampoule (180 mg of active compound)
6.5.5.2 American trypanosomiasis
benznidazole Tablet: 12.5 mg [c];100 mg

Tablet (scored): 50 mg

nifurtimox Tablet: 30 mg; 120 mg; 250 mg
7. ANTIMIGRAINE MEDICINES
7.1 For treatment of acute attack
acetylsalicylic acid Tablet: 300 mg to 500 mg
ibuprofen [c] Tablet: 200 mg; 400 mg
paracetamol Oral liquid: 125 mg/5 mL [c]

Tablet: 300 mg to 500 mg

7.2 For prophylaxis
 propranolol Tablet: 20 mg; 40 mg (hydrochloride)
8. ANTINEOPLASTICS AND IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVES
Medicines listed below should be used according to protocols for treatment of the diseases
8.1 Immunosuppressive medicines
Complementary List
azathioprine Powder for injection: 100 mg (as sodium salt) in vial

Tablet (scored): 50 mg

ciclosporin Capsule: 25 mg

Concentrate for injection: 50 mg/mL in 1- mL ampoule for organ transplantation

8.2 Cytotoxic and adjuvant medicines
Complementary List
all-trans retinoid acid (ATRA) Capsule:  10 mg

– Acute promyelocytic leukaemia

allopurinol [c] Tablet: 100 mg; 300 mg
asparaginase Powder for injection: 10 000 IU in vial

– Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

bendamustine Injection: 45 mg/0.5 mL; 180 mg/2 mL

– Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia
– Follicular lymphoma

bleomycin Powder for injection: 15 mg (as sulfate) in vial

– Hodgkin lymphoma
– Kaposi sarcoma
– Ovarian germ cell tumour
– Testicular germ cell tumour

calcium folinate Injection: 3 mg/mL in 10- mL ampoule

Tablet: 15 mg

– Early stage colon cancer
– Early stage rectal cancer
– Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia
– Metastatic colorectal cancer
– Osteosarcoma
– Burkitt lymphoma

capecitabine Tablet:  150 mg; 500 mg

– Early stage colon cancer
– Early stage rectal cancer
– Metastatic breast cancer
– Metastatic colorectal cancer

carboplatin Injection: 50 mg/5  mL; 150 mg/15  mL; 450 mg/45  mL; 600 mg/60  mL

– Early stage breast cancer
– Epithelial ovarian cancer
– Nasopharyngeal cancer
– Non-small cell lung cancer
– Osteosarcoma
– Retinoblastoma

chlorambucil Tablet: 2 mg

– Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

cisplatin Injection:  50 mg/50 mL; 100 mg/100 mL

– Cervical cancer (as a radio-sensitizer)
– Head and neck cancer (as a radio-sensitizer)
– Nasopharyngeal cancer (as a radio-sensitizer)
– Non-small cell lung cancer
– Osteosarcoma
– Ovarian germ cell tumour
– Testicular germ cell tumour

cyclophosphamide Powder for injection: 500 mg in vial

Tablet: 25 mg

– Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia
– Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
– Early stage breast cancer
– Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia
– Hodgkin lymphoma
– Follicular lymphoma
– Rhabdomyosarcoma
– Ewing sarcoma
– Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
– Burkitt lymphoma
– Metastatic breast cancer

cytarabine Powder for injection: 100 mg in vial

– Acute myelogenous leukaemia
– Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
– Acute promyelocytic leukaemia
– Burkitt lymphoma

dacarbazine Powder for injection: 100 mg in vial

– Hodgkin lymphoma

dactinomycin Powder for injection: 500 micrograms in vial

– Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia
– Rhabdomyosarcoma
– Wilms tumour

daunorubicin Powder for injection: 50 mg (hydrochloride) in vial

– Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
– Acute myelogenous leukaemia
– Acute promyelocytic leukaemia

docetaxel Injection: 20 mg/mL; 40 mg/mL

– Early stage breast cancer
– Metastatic breast cancer
– Metastatic prostate cancer

doxorubicin Powder for injection: 10 mg; 50 mg (hydrochloride) in vial

– Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
– Early stage breast cancer
– Hodgkin lymphoma
– Kaposi sarcoma
– Follicular lymphoma
– Metastatic breast cancer
– Osteosarcoma
– Ewing sarcoma
– Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
– Wilms tumour
– Burkitt lymphoma

etoposide Capsule: 100 mg

Injection: 20 mg/mL in 5- mL ampoule

– Testicular germ cell tumour
– Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia
– Hodgkin lymphoma
– Non-small cell lung cancer
– Ovarian germ cell tumour
– Retinoblastoma
– Ewing sarcoma
– Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
– Burkitt lymphoma

fludarabine Powder for injection: 50 mg (phosphate) in vial

Tablet:  10 mg

– Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

fluorouracil Injection: 50 mg/mL in 5- mL ampoule

– Early stage breast cancer
– Early stage colon cancer
– Early stage rectal cancer
– Metastatic colorectal cancer
– Nasopharyngeal cancer

filgrastim Injection:  120 micrograms/0.2 mL; 300 micrograms/0.5 mL; 480 micrograms/0.8 mL in pre-filled syringe  300 micrograms/mL in 1- mL vial, 480 mg/1.6 mL in 1.6- mL vial

– Primary prophylaxis in patients at high risk for developing febrile neutropenia associated with myelotoxic chemotherapy
– Secondary prophylaxis for patients who have experienced neutropenia following prior myelotoxic chemotherapy
– To facilitate administration of dose dense chemotherapy regimens

gemcitabine Powder for injection:  200 mg in vial, 1 g in vial

– Epithelial ovarian cancer
– Non-small cell lung cancer

hydroxycarbamide Solid oral dosage form: 200 mg; 250 mg; 300 mg; 400 mg; 500 mg; 1 g

– Chronic myeloid leukaemia

ifosfamide Powder for injection: 500 mg vial; 1-g vial; 2-g vial

– Testicular germ cell tumour
– Ovarian germ cell tumour
– Osteosarcoma
– Rhabdomyosarcoma
– Ewing sarcoma

imatinib Tablet: 100 mg; 400 mg

– Chronic myeloid leukaemia
– Gastrointestinal stromal tumour

irinotecan Injection: 40 mg/2 mL in 2- mL vial; 100 mg/5 mL in 5-mL vial; 500 mg/25 mL in 25- mL vial

– Metastatic colorectal cancer

mercaptopurine Tablet: 50 mg

– Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
– Acute promyelocytic leukaemia

mesna Injection: 100 mg/mL in 4- mL and 10- mL ampoules

Tablet: 400 mg; 600 mg

– Testicular germ cell tumour
– Ovarian germ cell tumour
– Osteosarcoma
– Rhabdomyosarcoma
– Ewing sarcoma

methotrexate Powder for injection: 50 mg (as sodium salt) in vial

Tablet: 2.5 mg (as sodium salt)

– Early stage breast cancer
– Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia
– Osteosarcoma
– Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
– Acute promyelocytic leukaemia

oxaliplatin Injection: 50 mg/10 mL in 10- mL vial; 100 mg/20 mL in 20-mL vial; 200 mg/40 mL in 40- mL vial

Powder for injection:  50 mg, 100 mg in vial

– Early stage colon cancer
– Metastatic colorectal cancer

paclitaxel Powder for injection: 6 mg/mL

– Epithelial ovarian cancer
– Early stage breast cancer
– Metastatic breast cancer
– Kaposi sarcoma
– Nasopharyngeal cancer
– Non-small cell lung cancer
– Ovarian germ cell tumour

procarbazine Capsule: 50 mg (as hydrochloride)
rituximab Injection: 100 mg/10 mL in 10- mL vial; 500 mg/50 mL in 50- mL vial

– Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
– Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia
– Follicular lymphoma

tioguanine [c] Solid oral dosage form: 40 mg

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

trastuzumab Powder for injection: 60 mg; 150 mg;  440 mg in vial

– Early stage HER2 positive breast cancer
– Metastatic HER2 positive breast cancer

vinblastine Powder for injection: 10 mg (sulfate) in vial

– Hodgkin lymphoma
– Kaposi sarcoma
– Testicular germ cell tumour
– Ovarian germ cell tumour

vincristine Powder for injection: 1 mg; 5 mg (sulfate) in vial

– Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
– Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia
– Hodgkin lymphoma
– Kaposi sarcoma
– Follicular lymphoma
– Retinoblastoma
– Rhabdomyosarcoma
– Ewing sarcoma
– Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
– Wilms tumour
– Burkitt lymphoma

vinorelbine Injection: 10 mg/mL in 1- mL vial;  50 mg/5 mL in 5-mL vial

– Non-small cell lung cancer
– Metastatic breast cancer

8.3 Hormones and antihormones
Complementary List
anastrozole Tablet:  1 mg

– Early stage breast cancer
– Metastatic breast cancer

bicalutamide Tablet: 50 mg

– Metastatic prostate cancer

dexamethasone Injection: 4 mg/mL in 1- mL ampoule (as disodium phosphate salt)

Oral liquid: 2 mg/5  mL [c]

– Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

leuprorelin Dose form

– Early stage breast cancer
– Metastatic prostate cancer

hydrocortisone Powder for injection: 100 mg (as sodium succinate) in vial

– Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

methylprednisolone [c] Injection: 40 mg/mL (as sodium succinate) in 1- mL single-dose vial and 5- mL multi-dose vials; 80 mg/mL (as sodium succinate) in 1- mL single-dose vial

– Acute lymphoblastic leukamia

prednisolone Oral liquid: 5 mg/mL [c]

Tablet: 5 mg; 25 mg

– Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia
– Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
– Hodgkin lymphoma
– Follicular lymphoma
– Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
– Burkitt lymphoma

tamoxifen Tablet: 10 mg; 20 mg (as citrate)

– Early stage breast cancer
– Metastatic breast cancer

9. ANTIPARKINSONISM MEDICINES
 biperiden Injection: 5 mg (lactate) in 1- mL ampoule

Tablet: 2 mg (hydrochloride)

levodopa +  carbidopa Tablet: 100 mg + 10 mg; 100 mg + 25 mg; 250 mg + 25 mg
10. MEDICINES AFFECTING THE BLOOD
10.1 Antianaemia medicines
ferrous salt Oral liquid: equivalent to 25 mg iron (as sulfate)/mL

Tablet: equivalent to 60 mg iron

ferrous salt + folic acid Tablet: equivalent to 60 mg iron + 400 micrograms folic acid (nutritional supplement for use during pregnancy)
folic acid Tablet: 400 micrograms*; 1 mg; 5 mg

*periconceptual use for prevention of first occurrence of neural tube defects

hydroxocobalamin Injection: 1 mg (as acetate, as hydrochloride or as sulfate) in 1- mL ampoule
10.2 Medicines affecting coagulation
 enoxaparin* Injection: ampoule or pre-filled syringe

20 mg/0.2 mL; 40 mg/0.4 mL; 60 mg/0.6 mL; 80 mg/0.8 mL; 100 mg/1 mL; 120 mg/0.8 mL; 150 mg/1 mL

*Alternatives are limited to nadroparin and dalteparin

heparin sodium Injection: 1000 IU/mL; 5000 IU/mL; 20 000 IU/mL in 1- mL ampoule
phytomenadione Injection: 1 mg/mL [c]; 10 mg/mL in 5- mL ampoule

Tablet: 10 mg

protamine sulfate Injection: 10 mg/mL in 5- mL ampoule
tranexamic acid Injection: 100 mg/mL in 10- mL ampoule
 warfarin Tablet: 1 mg; 2 mg; 5 mg (sodium salt)
Complementary List [c]
desmopressin Injection:  4 micrograms/mL (as acetate) in 1- mL ampoule

Nasal spray:  10 micrograms (as acetate) per dose

heparin sodium Injection: 1000 IU/mL; 5000 IU/mL in 1- mL ampoule
protamine sulfate Injection: 10 mg/mL in 5- mL ampoule
warfarin Tablet: 0.5 mg; 1 mg; 2 mg; 5 mg (sodium salt)
10.3 Other medicines for haemoglobinopathies
Complementary List
deferoxamine* Powder for injection: 500 mg (mesilate) in vial

*Deferasirox oral form may be an alternative, depending on cost and availability

hydroxycarbamide Solid oral dosage form: 200 mg; 500 mg; 1 g
11. BLOOD PRODUCTS OF HUMAN ORIGIN AND PLASMA SUBSTITUTES
11.1 Blood and blood components
In accordance with the World Health Assembly resolution WHA63.12, WHO recognizes that achieving self-sufficiency, unless special circumstances preclude it, in the supply of safe blood components based on voluntary, non-remunerated blood donation, and the security of that supply are important national goals to prevent blood shortages and meet the transfusion requirements of the patient population.  All preparations should comply with the WHO requirements.
fresh–frozen plasma
platelets
red blood cells
whole blood
11.2 Plasma-derived medicines
All human plasma-derived medicines should comply with the WHO requirements
11.2.1 Human immunoglobulins
anti-D immunoglobulin Injection: 250 micrograms in single-dose vial
Anti-rabies immunoglobulin Injection: 150 IU/mL in vial
Anti-tetanus immunoglobulin Injection: 500 IU in vial
Complementary List
normal immunoglobulin Intramuscular administration: 16% protein solution*

Intravenous administration: 5%; 10% protein solution**

Subcutaneous administration: 15%; 16% protein solution* 

*Indicated for primary immune deficiency 

**Indicated for primary immune deficiency and Kawasaki disease

11.2.2 Blood coagulation factors
Complementary List
coagulation factor VIII Powder for injection: 500 IU/vial
coagulation factor IX Powder for injection: 500 IU/vial, 1000 IU/vial
11.3 Plasma substitutes
 dextran 70* Injectable solution: 6%

*Polygeline, injectable solution, 3.5% is considered as equivalent

12. CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINES
12.1 Antianginal medicines
 bisoprolol* Tablet: 1.25 mg; 5 mg

*lol and carvedilol as alternatives

glyceryl trinitrate Tablet (sublingual): 500 micrograms
 isosorbide dini isosorbide dinitrate Tablet (sublingual): 5 mg
verapamil Tablet: 40 mg; 80 mg (hydrochloride)
12.2 Antiarrhythmic medicines
 bisoprolol* Tablet: 1.25 mg; 5 mg

* includes metoprolol and carvedilol as alternatives

digoxin Injection: 250 micrograms/mL in 2- mL ampoule

Oral liquid: 50 micrograms/mL

Tablet: 62.5 micrograms; 250 micrograms

epinephrine (adrenaline) Injection: 100 micrograms/mL (as acid tartrate or hydrochloride) in 10- mL ampoule
lidocaine Injection: 20 mg (hydrochloride)/mL in 5- mL ampoule
verapamil Injection: 2.5 mg (hydrochloride)/mL in 2- mL ampoule

Tablet: 40 mg; 80 mg (hydrochloride)

Complementary List
amiodarone Injection: 50 mg/mL in 3- mL ampoule (hydrochloride)

Tablet: 100 mg; 200 mg; 400 mg (hydrochloride)

12.3 Antihypertensive medicines
 amlodipine Tablet: 5 mg (as maleate, mesylate or besylate)
 bisoprolol* Tablet: 1.25 mg; 5 mg

*includes atenolol, metoprolol and carvedilol as alternatives.  Atenolol should not be used as a first-line agent in uncomplicated hypertension in patients >60 years

 enalapril Tablet: 2.5 mg; 5 mg (as hydrogen maleate)
hydralazine* Powder for injection: 20 mg (hydrochloride) in ampoule

Tablet: 25 mg; 50 mg (hydrochloride)

*Hydralazine is listed for use only in the acute management of severe pregnancy-induced hypertension. Its use in the treatment of essential hypertension is not recommended in view of the evidence of greater efficacy and safety of other medicines

 hydrochlorothiazide Oral liquid: 50 mg/5 mL

Solid oral dosage form: 12.5 mg; 25 mg

methyldopa* Tablet: 250 mg

*Methyldopa is listed for use only in the management of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Its use in the treatment of essential hypertension is not recommended in view of the evidence of greater efficacy and safety of other medicines.

Complementary List
sodium nitroprusside Powder for infusion: 50 mg in ampoule
12.4 Medicines used in heart failure
 bisoprolol* Tablet: 1.25 mg; 5 mg

* includes metoprolol and carvedilol as alternatives

digoxin Injection: 250 micrograms/mL in 2- mL ampoule

Oral liquid: 50 micrograms/mL

Tablet: 62.5 micrograms; 250 micrograms

 enalapril Tablet: 2.5 mg; 5 mg (as hydrogen maleate)
 furosemide Injection: 10 mg/mL in 2- mL ampoule

Oral liquid: 20 mg/5  mL [c]

Tablet: 40 mg

 hydrochlorothiazide Oral liquid: 50 mg/5 mL

Solid oral dosage form: 25 mg

spironolactone Tablet: 25 mg
Complementary List
dopamine Injection: 40 mg/mL (hydrochloride) in 5-mL vial
12.5 Antithrombotic medicines
12.5.1 Anti-platelet medicines
acetylsalicylic acid Tablet: 100 mg
clopidogrel Tablet:  75 mg; 300 mg
12.5.2 Thrombolytic medicines
Complementary List
streptokinase Powder for injection: 1.5 million IU in vial
12.6 Lipid-lowering agents
 simvastatin* Tablet: 5 mg; 10 mg; 20 mg; 40 mg

*For use in high-risk patients

13. DERMATOLOGICAL MEDICINES (topical)
13.1 Antifungal medicines
 miconazole Cream or ointment: 2% (nitrate)
selenium sulfide Detergent-based suspension: 2%
sodium thiosulfate Solution: 15%
terbinafine Cream: 1% or Ointment: 1% terbinafine hydrochloride
13.2 Anti-infective medicines
mupirocin Cream (as mupirocin calcium): 2%

Ointment: 2%

potassium permanganate Aqueous solution: 1:10 000
silver sulfadiazine [a] Cream: 1%

[a] >2 months

13.3 Anti-inflammatory and antipruritic medicines
 betamethasone [a] Cream or ointment: 0.1% (as valerate)

[a] Hydrocortisone preferred in neonates

 calamine Lotion
 hydrocortisone Cream or ointment: 1% (acetate)
13.4 Medicines affecting skin differentiation and proliferation
benzoyl peroxide Cream or lotion: 5%
coal tar Solution: 5%
fluorouracil Ointment: 5%
 podophyllum resin Solution: 10% to 25%
salicylic acid Solution: 5%
urea Cream or ointment: 5%; 10%
13.5 Scabicides and pediculicides
 benzyl benzoate [a] Lotion: 25%

[a] >2 years

permethrin Cream: 5%

Lotion: 1%

14. DIAGNOSTIC AGENTS
14.1 Ophthalmic medicines
fluorescein Eye drops: 1% (sodium salt)
 tropicamide Eye drops: 0.5%
14.2 Radiocontrast media
 amidotrizoate Injection: 140 mg to 420 mg iodine (as sodium or meglumine salt)/mL in 20-mL ampoule
barium sulfate Aqueous suspension
 iohexol Injection: 140 mg to 350 mg iodine/mL in 5-mL; 10-mL; 20-mL ampoules
Complementary List
barium sulfate [c] Aqueous suspension
meglumine iotroxate Solution: 5 g to 8 g iodine in 100 mL to 250 mL
15. DISINFECTANTS AND ANTISEPTICS
15.1 Antiseptics
 chlorhexidine Solution: 5% (digluconate)
 ethanol Solution: 70% (denatured)
 povidone iodine Solution: 10% (equivalent to 1% available iodine)
15.2 Disinfectants
alcohol based hand rub Solution containing ethanol 80% volume /volume

Solution containing isopropyl alcohol 75% volume/volume

 chlorine base compound Powder: (0.1% available chlorine) for solution
 chloroxylenol Solution: 4.8%
glutaral Solution: 2%
16. DIURETICS
amiloride Tablet: 5 mg (hydrochloride)
 furosemide Injection: 10 mg/mL in 2-mL ampoule

Oral liquid: 20 mg/5 mL [c]

Tablet: 10 mg [c]; 20 mg [c]; 40 mg

 hydrochlorothiazide Solid oral dosage form: 25 mg
mannitol Injectable solution: 10%; 20%
spironolactone Tablet: 25 mg
Complementary List [c]
hydrochlorothiazide Tablet (scored): 25 mg
mannitol Injectable solution: 10%; 20%
spironolactone Oral liquid: 5 mg/5 mL; 10 mg/5 mL; 25 mg/5 mL

Tablet: 25 mg

17. GASTROINTESTINAL MEDICINES
Complementary List [c]
pancreatic enzymes Age-appropriate formulations and doses including lipase, protease and amylase
17.1 Antiulcer medicines
 omeprazole Powder for injection:  40 mg in vial

Powder for oral liquid: 20 mg; 40 mg sachets

 

 ranitidine Injection: 25 mg/mL (as hydrochloride) in 2-mL ampoule

Oral liquid: 75 mg/5 mL (as hydrochloride)

Tablet: 150 mg (as hydrochloride)

17.2 Antiemetic medicines
dexamethasone Injection: 4 mg/mL in 1-mL ampoule (as disodium phosphate salt)

Oral liquid: 0.5 mg/5 mL; 2 mg/5 mL

Solid oral dosage form: 0.5 mg; 0.75 mg; 1.5 mg; 4 mg

metoclopramide [a] Injection: 5 mg (hydrochloride)/mL in 2-mL ampoule

Oral liquid: 5 mg/5 mL [c]

Tablet: 10 mg (hydrochloride)

[a] Not in neonates

ondansetron [a] Injection: 2 mg base/mL in 2-mL ampoule (as hydrochloride)

Oral liquid: 4 mg base/5 mL

Solid oral dosage form: Eq 4 mg base; Eq 8 mg base; Eq 24 mg base

[a] >1 month

17.3 Anti-inflammatory medicines
 sulfasalazine Retention enema

Suppository: 500 mg

Tablet: 500 mg

Complementary List
hydrocortisone Retention enema
  Suppository: 25 mg (acetate)
(the  only applies to hydrocortisone retention enema)
17.4 Laxatives
 senna Tablet: 7.5 mg (sennosides) (or traditional dosage forms)
17.5 Medicines used in diarrhoea
17.5.1 Oral rehydration
oral rehydration salts Powder for dilution in 200 mL; 500 mL; 1 L

glucose: 75 mEq
sodium: 75 mEq or mmol/L
chloride: 65 mEq or mmol/L
potassium: 20 mEq or mmol/L
citrate: 10 mmol/L
osmolarity: 245 mOsm/L
glucose: 13.5 g/L
sodium chloride: 2.6 g/L
potassium chloride: 1.5 g/L
trisodium citrate dihydrate*: 2.9 g/L

*trisodium citrate dihydrate may be replaced by sodium hydrogen carbonate (sodium bicarbonate) 2.5 g/L. However, as the stability of this latter formulation is very poor under tropical conditions, it is recommended only when manufactured for immediate use.

17.5.2 Medicines for diarrhoea
zinc sulfate* Solid oral dosage form: 20 mg

*In acute diarrhoea zinc sulfate should be used as an adjunct to oral rehydration salts

18. HORMONES, OTHER ENDOCRINE MEDICINES AND CONTRACEPTIVES
18.1 Adrenal hormones and synthetic substitutes
fludrocortisone Tablet: 100 micrograms (acetate)
hydrocortisone Tablet: 5 mg; 10 mg; 20 mg
18.2 Androgens
Complementary List
testosterone Injection: 200 mg (enanthate) in 1-mL ampoule
18.3 Contraceptives
18.3.1 Oral hormonal contraceptives
 ethinylestradiol +  levonorgestrel Tablet: 30 micrograms + 150 micrograms
 ethinylestradiol +  norethisterone Tablet: 35 micrograms + 1 mg
levonorgestrel Tablet: 30 micrograms; 750 micrograms (pack of two); 1.5 mg
18.3.2 Injectable hormonal contraceptives
estradiol cypionate + medroxyprogesterone acetate Injection: 5 mg + 25 mg
medroxyprogesterone acetate Depot Injection: 150 mg/mL in 1-mL vial
norethisterone enantate Oily solution: 200 mg/mL in 1-mL ampoule
18.3.3 Intrauterine devices
copper-containing device
levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system Intrauterine system with reservoir containing 52 mg of levonorestrel
18.3.4 Barrier methods
condoms
diaphragms
18.3.5 Implantable contraceptives
etonogestrel-releasing implant Single-rod etonogestrel-releasing implant, containing 68 mg of etonogestrel
levonorgestrel-releasing implant Two-rod levonorgestrel-releasing implant, each rod containing 75 mg of levonorgestrel (150 mg total)
18.3.6 Intravaginal contraceptives
progesterone vaginal ring* Progesterone-releasing vaginal ring containing 2.074g of micronized progesterone

*For use in women actively breastfeeding at least 4 times per day

18.4 Estrogens
18.5 Insulins and other medicines used for diabetes
 gliclazide* Solid oral dosage form: (controlled-release tablets) 30 mg; 60 mg;

80 mg

*glibenclamide not suitable above 60 years

glucagon Injection: 1 mg/mL
insulin injection (soluble) Injection: 40 IU/mL in 10-mL vial; 100 IU/mL in 10-mL vial
intermediate-acting insulin Injection: 40 IU/mL in 10-mL vial; 100 IU/mL in 10-mL vial (as compound insulin zinc suspension or isophane insulin)
metformin Tablet: 500 mg (hydrochloride)
Complementary List [c]
metformin Tablet: 500 mg (hydrochloride)
18.6 Ovulation inducers
Complementary List
clomifene Tablet: 50 mg (citrate)
18.7 Progestogens
 medroxyprogesterone acetate Tablet: 5 mg
18.8 Thyroid hormones and antithyroid medicines
levothyroxine Tablet: 25 micrograms [c]; 50 micrograms; 100 micrograms (sodium salt)
potassium iodide Tablet: 60 mg
 propylthiouracil Tablet: 50 mg
Complementary List [c]
Lugol’s solution Oral liquid: about 130 mg total iodine/mL
potassium iodide Tablet: 60 mg
propylthiouracil Tablet: 50 mg
19. IMMUNOLOGICALS
19.1 Diagnostic agents
All tuberculins should comply with the WHO requirements for tuberculins
tuberculin, purified protein derivative (PPD) Injection
19.2 Sera and immunoglobulins
All plasma fractions should comply with the WHO requirements
Anti-venom immunoglobulin* Injection

*Exact type to be defined locally

diphtheria antitoxin Injection: 10 000 IU; 20 000 IU in vial
19.3 Vaccines
WHO immunization policy recommendations are published in vaccine position papers on the basis of recommendations made by the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE)

WHO vaccine position papers are updated three to four times per year. The list below details the vaccines for which there is a recommendation from SAGE and a corresponding WHO position paper as at 27 February 2015. The most recent versions of the WHO position papers, reflecting the current evidence related to a specific vaccine and the related recommendations, can be accessed at any time on the WHO website at:

http://www.who.int/immunization/documents/positionpapers/en/index.html

Vaccine recommendations may be universal or conditional (e.g., in certain regions, in some high-risk populations or as part of immunization programmes with certain characteristics). Details are available in the relevant position papers, and in the Summary Tables of WHO Routine Immunization Recommendations available on the WHO website at:

http://www.who.int/immunization/policy/immunization_tables/en/index.html

Selection of vaccines from the Model List will need to be determined by each country after consideration of international recommendations, epidemiology and national priorities

All vaccines should comply with the WHO requirements for biological substances

WHO noted the need for vaccines used in children to be polyvalent

Recommendations for all
BCG vaccine
diphtheria vaccine
Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine
hepatitis B vaccine
HPV vaccine
measles vaccine
pertussis vaccine
pneumococcal vaccine
poliomyelitis vaccine
rotavirus vaccine
rubella vaccine
tetanus vaccine
Recommendations for certain regions
Japanese encephalitis vaccine
yellow fever vaccine
tick-borne encephalitis vaccine
Recommendations for some high-risk populations
cholera vaccine
hepatitis A vaccine
meningococcal meningitis vaccine
rabies vaccine
typhoid vaccine
Recommendations for immunization programmes with certain characteristics
influenza vaccine (seasonal)
mumps vaccine
varicella vaccine
20. MUSCLE RELAXANTS (PERIPHERALLY-ACTING) AND CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS
 atracurium Injection: 10 mg/mL (besylate)
neostigmine Injection: 500 micrograms in 1-mL ampoule; 2.5 mg (metilsulfate) in 1-mL ampoule

Tablet: 15 mg (bromide)

suxamethonium Injection: 50 mg (chloride)/mL in 2-mL ampoule

Powder for injection (chloride), in vial

 vecuronium [c] Powder for Injection: 10 mg (bromide) in vial
Complementary List
pyridostigmine Injection: 1 mg in 1-mL ampoule

Tablet: 60 mg (bromide)

vecuronium Powder for Injection: 10 mg (bromide) in vial
21. OPHTHALMOLOGICAL PREPARATIONS
21.1 Anti-infective agents
aciclovir Ointment: 3% W/W
azithromycin Solution (eye drops): 1.5%
 gentamicin Solution (eye drops): 0.3% (sulfate)
 ofloxacin Solution (eye drops): 0.3%
 tetracycline Eye ointment: 1% (hydrochloride)
21.2 Anti-inflammatory agents
 prednisolone Solution (eye drops): 0.5% (sodium phosphate)
21.3 Local anaesthetics
 tetracaine [a] Solution (eye drops): 0.5% (hydrochloride)

[a] Not in preterm neonates

21.4 Miotics and antiglaucoma medicines
acetazolamide Tablet: 250 mg
latanoprost Solution (eye drops): latanoprost 50 micrograms/mL
 pilocarpine Solution (eye drops): 2%; 4% (hydrochloride or nitrate)
 timolol Solution (eye drops): 0.25%; 0.5% (as hydrogen maleate)
21.5 Mydriatics
atropine* [a] Solution (eye drops): 0.1%; 0.5%; 1% (sulfate)

*[c] Or homatropine (hydrobromide) or cyclopentolate (hydrochloride)

[a] >3 months

Complementary List
epinephrine (adrenaline) Solution (eye drops): 2% (as hydrochloride)
21.6 Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) preparations
Complementary List
bevacizumab Injection: 25 mg/mL
22. OXYTOCICS AND ANTIOXYTOCICS
22.1 Oxytocics
 ergometrine Injection: 200 micrograms (hydrogen maleate) in 1-mL ampoule
misoprostol Tablet: 200 micrograms
– Management of incomplete abortion and miscarriage;
– Prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage where oxytocin is not available or cannot be safely usedVaginal Tablet: 25 micrograms**Only for use for induction of labour where appropriate facilities are available
oxytocin Injection: 10 IU in 1-mL
Complementary List
mifepristone* – misoprostol*

[Where permitted under national law and where culturally acceptable]

Tablet 200 mg – tablet 200 micrograms

*Requires close medical supervision

22.2 Antioxytocics (tocolytics)
nifedipine Immediate-release Capsule: 10 mg
23. PERITONEAL DIALYSIS SOLUTION
Complementary List
intraperitoneal dialysis solution (of appropriate composition) Parenteral solution
24. MEDICINES FOR MENTAL AND BEHAVIOURAL DISORDERS
24.1 Medicines used in psychotic disorders
 chlorpromazine Injection: 25 mg (hydrochloride)/mL in 2-mL ampoule

Oral liquid: 25 mg (hydrochloride)/5 mL

Tablet: 100 mg (hydrochloride)

 fluphenazine Injection: 25 mg (decanoate or enantate) in 1-mL ampoule
 haloperidol Injection: 5 mg in 1-mL ampoule

Tablet: 2 mg; 5 mg

risperidone Solid oral dosage form: 0.25 mg to 6.0 mg
Complementary List
chlorpromazine [c] Injection: 25 mg (hydrochloride)/mL in 2-mL ampoule

Oral liquid: 25 mg (hydrochloride)/5 mL

Tablet: 10 mg; 25 mg; 50 mg; 100 mg (hydrochloride)

clozapine Solid oral dosage form: 25 to 200 mg
haloperidol [c] Injection: 5 mg in 1-mL ampoule

Oral liquid: 2 mg/mL

Solid oral dosage form: 0.5 mg; 2 mg; 5 mg

24.2 Medicines used in mood disorders
24.2.1 Medicines used in depressive disorders
 amitriptyline Tablet: 25 mg; 75mg. (hydrochloride)
fluoxetine Solid oral dosage form: 20 mg (as hydrochloride)
Complementary List [c]
fluoxetine [a] Solid oral dosage form: 20 mg (as hydrochloride)

[a] >8 years

24.2.2 Medicines used in bipolar disorders
carbamazepine Tablet (scored): 100 mg; 200 mg
lithium carbonate Solid oral dosage form: 300 mg
valproic acid (sodium valproate) Tablet (enteric-coated): 200 mg; 500 mg (sodium valproate)
24.3 Medicines for anxiety disorders
 diazepam Tablet (scored): 2 mg; 5 mg
24.4 Medicines used for obsessive compulsive disorders
clomipramine Capsule: 10 mg; 25 mg (hydrochloride)
24.5 Medicines for disorders due to psychoactive substance use
nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) Chewing gum: 2 mg; 4 mg (as polacrilex)

Transdermal patch: 5 mg to 30 mg/16 hrs; 7 mg to 21 mg/24 hrs

Complementary List
methadone* Concentrate for Oral liquid: 5 mg/mL; 10 mg/mL (hydrochloride)

Oral liquid: 5 mg/5 mL; 10 mg/5 mL (hydrochloride)

*The square box is added to include buprenorphine. The medicines should only be used within an established support programme

25. MEDICINES ACTING ON THE RESPIRATORY TRACT
25.1 Antiasthmatic and medicines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
 beclometasone Inhalation (aerosol): 50 micrograms (dipropionate) per dose; 100 micrograms (dipropionate) per dose (as CFC free forms)
 budesonide [c] Inhalation (aerosol): 100 micrograms per dose; 200 micrograms per dose
epinephrine (adrenaline) Injection:1 mg (as hydrochloride or hydrogen tartrate) in 1-mL ampoule
ipratropium bromide Inhalation (aerosol): 20 micrograms/metered dose
 salbutamol Inhalation (aerosol): 100 micrograms (as sulfate) per dose

Injection: 50 micrograms (as sulfate)/mL in 5-mL ampoule

Metered dose inhaler (aerosol): 100 micrograms (as sulfate) per dose

Respirator solution for use in nebulizers: 5 mg (as sulfate)/mL

26. SOLUTIONS CORRECTING WATER, ELECTROLYTE AND ACID–BASE DISTURBANCES
26.1 Oral
oral rehydration salts See section 17.5.1.
potassium chloride Powder for solution
26.2 Parenteral
glucose Injectable solution: 5% (isotonic); 10% (hypertonic); 50% (hypertonic)
glucose with sodium chloride Injectable solution: 4% glucose, 0.18% sodium chloride (equivalent to Na+ 30 mmol/L, Cl-30 mmol/L)

Injectable solution: 5% glucose, 0.9% sodium chloride (equivalent to Na+ 150 mmol/L and Cl-150 mmol/L); 5% glucose, 0.45% sodium chloride (equivalent to Na+ 75 mmol/L and Cl- 75 mmol/L) [c]

potassium chloride Solution: 11.2% in 20-mL ampoule (equivalent to K+ 1.5 mmol/mL, Cl- 1.5 mmol/mL)

Solution for dilution: 7.5% (equivalent to K 1 mmol/mL and Cl 1 mmol/mL) [c]; 15% (equivalent to K 2 mmol/mL and Cl 2 mmol/mL) [c]

sodium chloride Injectable solution: 0.9% isotonic (equivalent to Na+ 154 mmol/L, Cl- 154 mmol/L)
sodium hydrogen carbonate Injectable solution: 1.4% isotonic (equivalent to Na + 167 mmol/L, HCO3- 167 mmol/L)

Solution: 8.4% in 10-mL ampoule (equivalent to Na+ 1000 mmol/L, HCO3-1000 mmol/L)

 sodium lactate, compound solution Injectable solution
26.3 Miscellaneous
water for injection 2-mL; 5-mL; 10-mL ampoules
27. VITAMINS AND MINERALS
ascorbic acid Tablet: 50 mg
calcium Tablet: 500 mg (elemental)
cholecalciferol* [c] Oral liquid: 400 IU/mL

Solid oral dosage form: 400 IU; 1000 IU

*Ergocalciferol can be used as an alternative

 ergocalciferol Oral liquid: 250 micrograms/mL (10 000 IU/mL)

Solid oral dosage form: 1.25 mg (50 000 IU)

iodine Capsule: 200 mg

Iodized oil: 1 mL (480 mg iodine); 0.5 mL (240 mg iodine) in ampoule (oral or injectable); 0.57 mL (308 mg iodine) in dispenser bottle

 nicotinamide Tablet: 50 mg
pyridoxine Tablet: 25 mg (hydrochloride)
retinol Capsule: 50 000 IU; 100 000 IU; 200 000 IU (as palmitate)

Oral oily solution: 100 000 IU (as palmitate)/mL in multidose dispenser

Tablet (sugar-coated): 10 000 IU (as palmitate)

Water-miscible Injection: 100 000 IU (as palmitate) in 2-mL ampoule

riboflavin Tablet: 5 mg
sodium fluoride In any appropriate topical formulation
thiamine Tablet: 50 mg (hydrochloride)
Complementary List
calcium gluconate Injection: 100 mg/mL in 10-mL ampoule
28. EAR, NOSE AND THROAT MEDICINES [c]
acetic acid Topical: 2%, in alcohol
 budesonide Nasal spray: 100 micrograms per dose
 ciprofloxacin Topical: 0.3% drops (as hydrochloride)
 xylometazoline [a] Nasal spray: 0.05%

[a] Not in children less than 3 months

29. SPECIFIC MEDICINES FOR NEONATAL CARE
29.1 Medicines administered to the neonate [c]
caffeine citrate Injection: 20 mg/mL (equivalent to 10 mg caffeine base/mL)

Oral liquid: 20 mg/mL (equivalent to 10 mg caffeine base/mL)

Chlorhexidine Solution or gel: 7.1% (digluconate) delivering 4% chlorhexidine (for umbilical cord care) [c]
Complementary List
ibuprofen Solution for injection: 5 mg/mL
prostaglandin E Solution for injection:

Prostaglandin E1: 0.5 mg/mL in alcohol
Prostaglandin E2: 1 mg/mL

surfactant Suspension for intratracheal instillation: 25 mg/mL or 80 mg/mL
29.2 Medicines administered to the mother
dexamethasone Injection: 4 mg/mL dexamethasone phosphate (as disodium salt)
30. MEDICINES FOR DISEASES OF JOINTS
30.1 Medicines used to treat gout
allopurinol Tablet: 100 mg
30.2 Disease-modifying agents used in rheumatoid disorders (DMARDs)
chloroquine Tablet: 100 mg; 150 mg (as phosphate or sulfate)
Complementary List
azathioprine Tablet: 50 mg
hydroxychloroquine [c] Solid oral dosage form: 200 mg (as sulfate)
methotrexate Tablet: 2.5 mg (as sodium salt)
penicillamine Solid oral dosage form: 250 mg
sulfasalazine Tablet: 500 mg
30.3 Juvenile joint diseases
acetylsalicylic acid* (acute or chronic use) Suppository: 50 mg to 150 mg

Tablet: 100 mg to 500 mg

*For use for rheumatic fever, juvenile arthritis, Kawasaki disease

Table 1.1: Medicines with age or weight restrictions

atazanavir >25 kg
atropine >3 months
benzyl benzoate >2 years
betamethasone topical preparations hydrocortisone preferred in neonates
cefazolin >1 month
ceftriaxone >41 weeks corrected gestational age
darunavir >3 years
diloxanide >25 kg
doxycycline >8 years (except for serious infections e.g. cholera)
efavirenz >3 years or >10 kg
fluoxetine >8 years
ibuprofen >3 months (except IV form for patent ductus arteriosus)
mefloquine >5 kg or >3 months
metoclopramide Not in neonates
nevirapine > 6 weeks
ondansetron >1 month
saquinavir >25 kg
silver sulfadiazine >2 months
tetracaine Not in preterm neonates
trimethoprim >6 months
xylometazoline >3 months

Table 1.2: Explanation of dosage forms

A. Principal dosage forms used in EML – oral administration
Term Definition
Solid oral dosage form Refers to tablets or capsules or other solid dosage forms such as ‘melts’ that are immediate-release preparations. It implies that there is no difference in clinical efficacy or safety between the available dosage forms, and countries should therefore choose the form(s) to be listed depending on quality and availability

The term ‘solid oral dosage form’ is never intended to allow any type of modified-release tablet

Tablets Refers to:

  • uncoated or coated (film-coated or sugar-coated) tablets that are intended to be swallowed whole;
  • unscored and scored*;
  • tablets that are intended to be chewed before being swallowed;
  • tablets that are intended to be dispersed or dissolved in water or another suitable liquid before being swallowed;
  • tablets that are intended to be crushed before being swallowed

The term ‘tablet’ without qualification is never intended to allow any type of modified-release tablet

*Scored tablets may be divided for ease of swallowing, provided that dose is a whole number of tablets

Tablets (qualified) Refers to a specific type of tablet:
chewable – tablets that are intended to be chewed before being swallowed;
dispersible – tablets that are intended to be dispersed in water or another suitable liquid before being swallowed;
soluble – tablets that are intended to be dissolved in water or another suitable liquid before being swallowed;
crushable – tablets that are intended to be crushed before being swallowed;
scored – tablets bearing a break mark or marks where sub-division is intended in order to provide doses of less than one tablet;
sublingual – tablets that are intended to be placed beneath the tongueThe term ‘tablet’ is always qualified with an additional term (in parentheses) in entries where one of the following types of tablet is intended: gastro-resistant (such tablets may sometimes be described as enteric-coated or as delayed-release), prolonged-release or another modified-release formOral liquids presented as powders or granules may offer benefits in the form of better stability and lower transport costs. If more than one type of oral liquid is available on the same market (e.g. solution, suspension, granules for reconstitution), they may be interchanged and in such cases should be bioequivalent. It is preferable that oral liquids do not contain sugar and that solutions for children do not contain alcohol
Capsules Refers to hard or soft capsules

The term ‘capsule’ without qualification is never intended to allow any type of modified-release capsule

Capsules (qualified) The term ‘capsule’ with qualification refers to gastro-resistant (such capsules may sometimes be described as enteric-coated or as delayed-release), prolonged-release or another modified-release form
Granules Preparations that are issued to patient as granules to be swallowed without further preparation, to be chewed, or to be taken in or with water or another suitable liquid

The term ‘granules’ without further qualification is never intended to allow any type of modified-release granules

Oral powder Preparations that are issued to patient as powder (usually as single-dose) to be taken in or with water or another suitable liquid
Oral liquid Liquid preparations intended to be swallowed i.e. oral solutions, suspensions, emulsions and oral drops, including those constituted from powders or granules, but not those preparations intended for oromucosal administration e.g. gargles and mouthwashes

Oral liquids presented as powders or granules may offer benefits in the form of better stability and lower transport costs. If more than one type of oral liquid is available on the same market (e.g. solution, suspension, granules for reconstitution), they may be interchanged and in such cases should be bioequivalent. It is preferable that oral liquids do not contain sugar and that solutions for children do not contain alcohol

B. Principal dosage forms used in EMLc – parenteral administration
Term Definition
Injection Refers to solutions, suspensions and emulsions including those constituted from powders or concentrated solutions.
Injection (qualified) Route of administration is indicated in parentheses where relevant
Injection (oily) The term `injection’ is qualified by `(oily)’ in relevant entries
Intravenous infusion Refers to solutions and emulsions including those constituted from powders or concentrated solutions
C. Other dosage forms
Mode of administration Term to be used
To the eye Eye drops, eye ointments
Topical For liquids: lotions, paints

For semi-solids: cream, ointment

Rectal Suppositories, gel or solution
Vaginal Pessaries or vaginal tablets
Inhalation Powder for inhalation, pressurized inhalation, nebulizer
error: Content is protected !!