Pharmacology Guides 2016-12-06T02:45:56+00:00

Pharmacology Guides

Whether its tetracyclines or anti-inflammatory drugs, this section offers comprehensive pharmacology guides on some of the main drug classes in therapeutic use today.

  • Pharmacology of Protease Inhibitors

Pharmacology of Protease Inhibitors

January 14th, 2017|0 Comments

An estimated 1.2 million people over the age of 13 are living with HIV in the United States, according to [...]

  • What is the difference between a drug & a medicine?

What is the difference between a drug and a medicine?

January 11th, 2017|0 Comments

There are many overlapping terms in medicine. Side effects and adverse effects, for example, being two of the most common. [...]

  • Why Patients Take Medicines Four Times Daily

Why Patients Take Medicines Four Times Daily

January 4th, 2017|0 Comments

Patients often ask the question – why do I have to take this medicine once daily and that medicine four [...]

  • Half-Life & The Elimination Constant

Half-Life & The Elimination Constant

December 28th, 2016|0 Comments

Now that we have covered what is meant by terms volume of distribution and clearance, we can now turn out [...]

  • 101 Pharmacology Facts that Every Pharmacy Student Should Know

101 Pharmacology Facts that Every Pharmacy Student Should Know

December 16th, 2016|2 Comments

While it’s impossible to summarise every conceivable fact, this list goes some way toward that goal. It includes 101 facts [...]

  • Fifth-Generation Cephalosporins – What are they?

Fifth-Generation Cephalosporins – What are they?

December 13th, 2016|0 Comments

Cephalosporin generations have confused tens of thousands of students; their names and individual characteristics proving to be nothing other than [...]

  • Fourth-Generation Cephalosporins – What are they?

Fourth-Generation Cephalosporins – What are they?

December 13th, 2016|0 Comments

Cephalosporin generations have confused tens of thousands of students; their names and individual characteristics proving to be nothing other than [...]

  • Third-Generation Cephalosporins – What are they?

Third-Generation Cephalosporins – What are they?

December 13th, 2016|0 Comments

Cephalosporin generations have confused tens of thousands of students; their names and individual characteristics proving to be nothing other than [...]

  • Second-Generation Cephalosporins - What are they?

Second-Generation Cephalosporins - What are they?

December 13th, 2016|0 Comments

Cephalosporin generations have confused tens of thousands of students; their names and individual characteristics proving to be nothing other than [...]

  • First-Generation Cephalosporins - What are they?

First-Generation Cephalosporins – What are they?

December 13th, 2016|0 Comments

Cephalosporin generations have confused tens of thousands of students; their names and individual characteristics proving to be nothing other than [...]

  • Bacteriostatic Antibiotics – What are they!?

Bacteriostatic Antibiotics – What are they!?

December 9th, 2016|0 Comments

What are bacteriostatic antibiotics? Antibiotics (also referred to as ‘antibacterial drugs’) are drugs used in the treatment of bacterial infections. [...]

  • Iron Interactions with Drugs

Iron Interactions with Drugs

December 8th, 2016|0 Comments

What is iron? Most people receive enough iron through their diet; an essential mineral for red blood cells. In fact, [...]

  • Pharmacology of Alzheimer's Disease

Pharmacology of Alzheimer's Disease

December 4th, 2016|0 Comments

What is Alzheimer’s disease Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive mental deterioration of the brain; itself accounting for almost three-fifths of [...]

  • Pharmacology Mnemonics

Pharmacology Mnemonics

July 28th, 2016|3 Comments

Students of pharmacology – whether they be students of medicine, pharmacy, or pharmacology itself – are obliged to commit a [...]

  • Basic Principles of Drug Clearance

Basic Principles of Drug Clearance

July 27th, 2016|0 Comments

Now that the basic concepts of volume of distribution and the elimination rate constant have been introduced, we can start [...]

  • Pharmacology of Antihypertensive Drugs

Pharmacology of Antihypertensive Drugs

March 31st, 2016|0 Comments

Introduction In this section we take a quick look at the pharmacology of antihypertensive drugs – looking at the various [...]

  • Pharmacology of Fibrinolytic Drugs

Pharmacology of Fibrinolytic Drugs

March 29th, 2016|0 Comments

Introduction In haemostasis pharmacology we have antiplatelet drugs, anticoagulant drugs, and fibrinolytic drugs. Aren’t they similar? What are the differences? [...]

  • Pharmacology of Anticoagulant Drugs (Oral)

Pharmacology of Anticoagulant Drugs (Oral)

March 26th, 2016|1 Comment

Introduction We’ve already discussed the pharmacology of injectable anticoagulants, so now we’re going to turn our attention to their oral [...]

  • Pharmacology of Parkinson's Disease

Pharmacology of Parkinson's Disease

March 25th, 2016|0 Comments

Introduction Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder, currently affecting over 1 million people in the United States. Men are 1.5 [...]

  • Pharmacology of Anticoagulant Drugs (Injectables)

Pharmacology of Anticoagulant Drugs (Injectables)

March 23rd, 2016|0 Comments

Introduction Anticoagulant drugs, as their name suggests, prevent the clotting – or coagulation – of blood. There are two types [...]

  • Pharmacology of Antiplatelet Drugs

Pharmacology of Antiplatelet Drugs

March 22nd, 2016|0 Comments

Introduction Let’s now turn our attention to the pharmacology of antiplatelet drugs – medicines which are used to inhibit the [...]

  • Pharmacology of Antimicrobial Agents

Pharmacology of Antimicrobial Agents

March 21st, 2016|0 Comments

Introduction Here, we offer an overview of the pharmacology of antimicrobial agents – specifically, those drugs deployed in the treatment [...]

  • Pharmacology of HIV Drugs

Pharmacology of HIV Drugs

March 21st, 2016|0 Comments

Introduction Today we’re looking at the pharmacology of HIV drugs – including reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, entry inhibitors, integrase [...]

  • Pharmacology of Cephalosporins

Pharmacology of Cephalosporins

March 20th, 2016|0 Comments

Introduction Let’s take a quick glance at the pharmacology of cephalosporins – drugs which are used in the treatment of [...]

  • Pharmacology of Tetracyclines

Pharmacology of Tetracyclines

March 19th, 2016|0 Comments

Introduction Let’s take a quick glance at the pharmacology of tetracyclines - drugs which interfere with bacterial protein synthesis. In [...]

  • Basic Pharmacokinetic Concepts: The Apparent Volume of Distribution

Basic Pharmacokinetic Concepts - Apparent Volume of Distribution

March 14th, 2016|0 Comments

Have you ever wondered about what happens when you swallow a tablet of ibuprofen? How does it get from your [...]

  • Pharmacology of Penicillin

Pharmacology of Penicillin

February 10th, 2016|0 Comments

Penicillin is a true antibiotic, developed as it was out of the Penicillium fungi. It was first discovered by the [...]

  • Important Food-Drug Interactions

Important Food-Drug Interactions

February 1st, 2016|0 Comments

What patients eat or drink can have enormous consequences on how a drug works. Some drugs are best taken on [...]

  • Pharmacology of Immunosuppressant Drugs

Pharmacology of Immunosuppressant Drugs

January 28th, 2016|0 Comments

The immune system is responsible for protecting the host organism against pathogens and tumour cells. It is composed of two [...]

  • Basic Pharmacodynamics: Drug-Receptor Interactions Explained

Basic Pharmacodynamics: Drug-Receptor Interactions Explained

January 27th, 2016|0 Comments

How do we study and quantify the effect a drug has on the body? In order for a drug to [...]

  • WHO List of Essential Medicines

WHO List of Essential Medicines

January 12th, 2016|0 Comments

The World Health Organisation (WHO) is an arm of the United Nations which came into being in April, 1948 – [...]

  • Pharmacology of Diuretics

Pharmacology of Diuretics

December 15th, 2015|0 Comments

We begin with the kidney – a small bean-shaped organ which weighs, on average, around 130-170 grams in males and [...]

  • Pharmacology of Beta Blockers

Pharmacology of Beta Blockers

December 8th, 2015|0 Comments

The pharmacology of beta blockers was conceived in 1964 when Dr James Black – a Scottish pharmacologist – developed the [...]

  • Pharmacology of NSAIDs

Pharmacology of NSAIDs

December 7th, 2015|0 Comments

The pharmacology of NSAIDs is broad and diverse, yet the function of NSAIDs can be summarised quite neatly. NSAIDs have [...]

  • Prescription Abbreviations

Prescription Abbreviations

December 5th, 2015|0 Comments

Prescription abbreviations (and acronyms) form the building blocks of many medical scripts. Their use has, in effect, become a tradition [...]

  • Medicinal Chemistry of Antifungal Drugs

Medicinal Chemistry of Antifungal Drugs

November 23rd, 2015|0 Comments

In this section, we offer a comprehensive assessment of the medicinal chemistry of antifungal drugs. Their medicinal chemistry could not [...]

  • Pharmacology of Antifungal Drugs

Pharmacology of Antifungal Drugs

November 23rd, 2015|0 Comments

When compared to antibacterial drugs, there are remarkably few antifungal drugs. These drugs have been designed to respond to infections [...]

  • Pharmacology of Quinolones

Pharmacology of Quinolones

November 13th, 2015|0 Comments

Quinolones, also known as fluoroquinolones, are a class of drugs used in the treatment of bacterial infections. The first quinolone [...]

  • Pharmacology of ACE Inhibitors

Pharmacology of ACE Inhibitors

November 12th, 2015|1 Comment

ACE inhibitors (angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors) are a class of drugs used in the treatment hypertension, heart disease, and chronic kidney failure. [...]

  • Pharmacology of SSRIs

Pharmacology of SSRIs

November 12th, 2015|0 Comments

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, more commonly referred to as SSRIs, are a class of drugs involved in the treatment of [...]

  • Pharmacology of Aminosalicylates

Pharmacology of Aminosalicylates

October 19th, 2015|0 Comments

Aminosalicylates are used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Examples include balsalazide, mesalazine, olsalazine and sulfasalazine. Inflammatory bowel disease [...]

  • Medicinal Chemistry of Macrolides

Medicinal Chemistry of Macrolides

October 18th, 2015|0 Comments

Macrolide antibiotics are of immense importance in the battle against bacterial infections today - even with the ever present rise [...]

  • Pharmacology of Aminoglycosides

Pharmacology of Aminoglycosides

October 17th, 2015|0 Comments

Aminoglycosides are antibacterial drugs used in the treatment of – predominantly – gram-negative infections. They are also inactive against anaerobic [...]

  • Pharmacology of Insulin Analogues

Pharmacology of Insulin Analogues

October 16th, 2015|0 Comments

When the body fails to secrete sufficient quantities of insulin, this invariably results in diabetes mellitus – itself caused by [...]

  • Pharmacology of Bisphosphonates

Pharmacology of Bisphosphonates

October 16th, 2015|0 Comments

Bisphosphonates are drugs used in the treatment of osteoporosis, Paget’s disease and multiple myeloma. Examples of bisphosphonates include alendronic acid, [...]

  • Pharmacology of Calcium Channel Blockers

Pharmacology of Calcium Channel Blockers

October 15th, 2015|0 Comments

Calcium channel blockers are drugs which disrupt the transfer of calcium ions through calcium channels. Examples include amlodipine, diltiazem, nifedipine [...]

  • Pharmacology of Macrolide Antibiotics

Pharmacology of Macrolide Antibiotics

October 12th, 2015|0 Comments

Macrolide antibiotics are, to put it at its simplest, antibiotics which contain a macrocyclic lactone ring. These drugs work by [...]

  • Medicinal Chemistry of Anticancer Drugs

Medicinal Chemistry of Anticancer Drugs I

October 12th, 2015|0 Comments

This section will describe the medicinal chemistry of anticancer drugs. Sometimes called antineoplastic agents, these drugs are of immense importance [...]

  • Topical Agents to Treat Neuropathic Pain?

Topical Agents to Treat Neuropathic Pain?

June 29th, 2015|1 Comment

I first learned of proprietary topical blends used to treat neuropathic pain when I was asked to consult for a [...]

  • Common Terms in Pharmacology

Common Terms in Pharmacology

December 6th, 2014|0 Comments

It's easy to forget many of the common terms in pharmacology, not least because of the sheer variety of competing [...]

  • Top 10 Best Ways to Remove Phlegm from your Throat

Top 10 Best Ways to Remove Phlegm from your Throat

December 6th, 2014|7 Comments

Separate fact from fiction with this top 10 best ways to remove phlegm from your throat - examining the most [...]

  • How do Drugs Work?

How do Drugs Work?

December 5th, 2014|0 Comments

“Corpora non agunt nisi fixata [drugs will not act unless they are bound]” – Paul Ehrlich It was the renowned [...]

  • Pharmacology of Antidiarrheal Drugs

Pharmacology of Antidiarrheal Drugs

December 4th, 2014|0 Comments

This articles looks at the pharmacology of antidiarrhoeal drugs; exploring the classes of drugs used in the management of this [...]

  • Pharmacology of Constipation

Pharmacology of Constipation

December 4th, 2014|0 Comments

Constipation is one of the most common, as well as one of the more frustrating, symptoms that patients encounter. Here, [...]

  • Pharmacology of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Pharmacology of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

December 4th, 2014|0 Comments

This section looks at the pharmacology of inflammatory bowel disease; understanding the drugs involved in the management of both Crohn's [...]

  • Pharmacology of Antiemetics

Pharmacology of Antiemetics

December 4th, 2014|1 Comment

This section takes a comprehensive look at the pharmacology of antiemetics; looking at the aetiological factors that give rise to [...]

  • Drugs Affecting Gastric Acid Secretion and Motility

Drugs Affecting Gastric Acid Secretion and Motility

December 4th, 2014|0 Comments

This article explores the pharmacology of drugs that affect gastric acid secretion and motility. It begins by exploring the physiological [...]

  • Medicinal Chemistry of Antiviral Drugs

Medicinal Chemistry of Antiviral Drugs

December 3rd, 2014|0 Comments

This section takes a look at the medicinal chemistry of antiviral drugs – looking at their fundamental structures to elucidate [...]

  • Medicinal Chemistry of Antimalarial Drugs

Medicinal Chemistry of Antimalarial Drugs

December 3rd, 2014|0 Comments

The following article looks at the medicinal chemistry of antimalarial drugs. It will look at - in detail - quinine [...]

  • Medicinal Chemistry of Beta-Lactam Antibiotics

Medicinal Chemistry of Beta-Lactam Antibiotics

December 3rd, 2014|5 Comments

This section focuses on the medicinal chemistry of beta-lactam antibiotics; the second part of our series on the medicinal chemistry [...]

  • Medicinal Chemistry of Antibacterial Drugs

Medicinal Chemistry of Antibacterial Drugs

December 3rd, 2014|0 Comments

The medicinal chemistry of antibacterial drugs is, like many fields of the subject, a rapidly evolving subject - not least [...]

  • Medicinal Chemistry of Vitamins — Water Soluble

Medicinal Chemistry of Vitamins — Water Soluble

December 3rd, 2014|0 Comments

This section takes a detailed look at the medicinal chemistry of vitamins; specifically analysing the water-soluble vitamins and how they [...]

  • Medicinal Chemistry of Vitamins — Fat Soluble

Medicinal Chemistry of Vitamins — Fat Soluble

December 3rd, 2014|0 Comments

This section takes a detailed look at the medicinal chemistry of vitamins - this time focussing on fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamins [...]

  • Medicinal Chemistry of Radiopharmaceuticals

Medicinal Chemistry of Radiopharmaceuticals

December 3rd, 2014|0 Comments

This section presents an overview of the medicinal chemistry of radiopharmaceuticals - those that are typically used in nuclear medicine. [...]

  • Medicinal Chemistry of Herbs

Medicinal Chemistry of Herbs

December 3rd, 2014|0 Comments

This section takes a look at the medicinal chemistry of herbs; introducing you to the very basics of phytochemistry. Introduction [...]

  • Medicinal Chemistry — Understanding Drug Metabolism

Medicinal Chemistry — Understanding Drug Metabolism

December 3rd, 2014|1 Comment

This section is a continuation of a previous article on drug metabolism. This article focusses on structural changes that occur [...]

  • Medicinal Chemistry — Drug Metabolism

Medicinal Chemistry — Drug Metabolism

December 3rd, 2014|0 Comments

This section takes a look at drug metabolism - specifically, it provides a short overview of the various common conjugation [...]

  • Medicinal Chemistry - Understanding Enzyme Kinetics

Medicinal Chemistry — Understanding Enzyme Kinetics

December 2nd, 2014|0 Comments

Here, we continue our understanding of drug targets, this time focusing on enzyme kinetics. Enzymes are biological macromolecules that act [...]

  • Medicinal Chemistry — Understanding Drug Targets

Medicinal Chemistry — Understanding Drug Targets

December 2nd, 2014|0 Comments

This section will go over drug targets in biological systems from a medicinal chemistry perspective. The purpose of this section [...]

Medicinal Chemistry Glossary

December 2nd, 2014|0 Comments

Covering structural features such as functional groups, cyclic aliphatic compounds, and heterocycles found in organic compounds that are used as [...]

  • Drug Design — A Special Case Study on Malaria

Drug Design — A Special Case Study on Malaria

December 2nd, 2014|0 Comments

Human malaria continues to be a major parasitic disease affecting nearly half of the human population. This case study explores [...]

  • Drug Design — The Complete Pharmacokinetics Guide

Drug Design — The Complete Pharmacokinetics Guide

December 2nd, 2014|0 Comments

The following article builds on previous drug design articles. This article mainly focuses on the drug design techniques used by [...]

  • Drug Design: Structure — Activity Relationships

Drug Design: Structure — Activity Relationships

December 2nd, 2014|0 Comments

This is the third medicinal chemistry article, with previous sections focussing on lead compounds as well as providing a general [...]

  • Modern Drug Discovery - Lead Identification

Modern Drug Discovery — Lead Identification

December 2nd, 2014|0 Comments

This section follows on from our overview of medicinal chemistry by focussing its attention on lead identification in modern drug [...]

  • Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry

Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry

December 2nd, 2014|0 Comments

This is the first section in our series on medicinal chemistry - it introduces the subject as well as providing [...]

  • Pharmaceutical Calculations — Parenteral Solutions and Isotonicity

Pharmaceutical Calculations — Parenteral Solutions and Isotonicity

December 1st, 2014|1 Comment

This is the final part of the seven-part series on pharmaceutical calculations, this time dealing with parenteral solutions and isotonicity. [...]

  • Pharmaceutical Calculations — Molecular Weights and Moles

Pharmaceutical Calculations — Molecular Weights and Moles

December 1st, 2014|0 Comments

This is the sixth part of our seven-part series on pharmaceutical calculations, this time dealing with molecular weights and moles. [...]

  • Pharmaceutical Calculations — Density and Displacement Values

Pharmaceutical Calculations — Density and Displacement Values

December 1st, 2014|3 Comments

Density and displacement values play a central role in formulation science and, by extension, pharmaceutical calculations. This section delves into [...]

  • Pharmaceutical Calculations — Calculation of Doses

Pharmaceutical Calculations — Calculation of Doses

December 1st, 2014|10 Comments

This is the fourth of our seven part series on pharmaceutical calculations, this time dealing with calculation of doses. Concentrations [...]

  • Pharmaceutical Calculations — Formulations

Pharmaceutical Calculations — Formulations

December 1st, 2014|3 Comments

This is the third in our seven-part series on pharmaceutical calculations, this time dealing comprehensively with formulations. Concentrations Dilutions Formulations [...]

  • Pharmaceutical Calculations — Dilutions

Pharmaceutical Calculations — Dilutions

December 1st, 2014|1 Comment

This is the second of our seven-part series on pharmaceutical calculations - this time dealing with the basic concept of [...]

  • Pharmaceutical Calculations — Concentrations

Pharmaceutical Calculations — Concentrations

December 1st, 2014|0 Comments

This is the first of the seven-part series on pharmaceutical calculations - this time dealing with concentrations. It examines the [...]

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