Each week we compile all the latest pharmacology facts released on our social media platforms. This is great pharmacology for students, as these facts are bite-sized, random, and often important facts that all students of medicine should commit to memory.
- Alemtuzumab is a monoclonal antibody whose uses include chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), T-cell lymphoma and multiple sclerosis.
- Alemtuzumab binds to CD52, a protein on surface of mature lymphocytes; the lymphocyte cells are then biologically targeted for destruction.
- Pregabalin (Lyrica) has many uses, including seizures and neuropathic pain. Side effects of pregabalin include dizziness, drowsiness, blurred vision, increased appetite and dry mouth.
- H2 receptor antagonists inhibit stomach acid production; heartburn, peptic ulcers etc. Examples include famotidine, ranitidine and cimetidine.
- Famotidine and ranitidine are longer-acting than cimetidine, with fewer adverse effects and fewer drug interactions.
- Proton pump inhibitors include esomeprazole, lansoprazole and pantoprazole. They irreversibly block H+/K+-ATPase of gastric parietal cells.
- Unlike H2 receptor antagonists, proton pump inhibitors target the terminal step in acid production and are irreversible in effect. Thus, they are most efficacious than the former.
- Proton pump inhibitors have an avg. half-life of 60-90 mins, but their effects last longer due to covalent binding to the pump.
- Benzimidazoles are used as antihelminthic drugs - targeting parasites. Examples include albendazole, mebendazole and thiabendazole.
- For example, albendazole is effective against: threadworms, roundworms, whipworms, tapeworms and hookworms.
- Albendazole inhibits microtubule formation; disrupting glucose uptake and glycogen stores. Immobilisation of the parasite is caused by diminished ATP levels.
- Buprenorphine is used to treat chronic pain at moderate doses and opioid addiction at higher doses. It is a partial opioid receptor agonist.
- Side effects of buprenorphine are in-line with general opioid side effects, which include nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, perspiration, itch, miosis, hypotension and decreased libido.
Mnemonics and mindmaps are also another great way to commit pharmacology to memory. But if you’d like to learn more about specific drug classes, check out these more detailed articles for more information.
Take two minutes to check out last week's facts here!