Each week we compile all the latest pharmacology facts released on our social media platforms. This is great pharmacology for students, as these facts are bite-sized, random, and often important facts that all students of medicine should commit to memory.
- Galantamine (Razadyne) is used in mild-to-moderate dementia in patients with Alzheimer's disease - it works as a cholinesterase inhibitor.
- Meloxicam is an NSAID with analgesic and antipyretic effects; commonly used to treat osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
- Meloxicam blocks COX; the enzyme that converts arachidonic acid into prostaglandin H2, the first step in prostaglandin synthesis. Prostaglandins are substances responsible for inflammation.
- ACE inhibitors - ramipril etc. - are known to cause a persistent dry cough due to the accumulation of kinins in the lung.
- Antiplatelet drugs include the irreversible COX inhibitors, such as aspirin; ADP receptor inhibitors such as clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor.
- Antiplatelet drugs: glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors such as abciximab, eptifibatide and tirofiban; and adenosine reuptake inhibitors, such as dipyridamole.
- Cilostazol is used to relieve intermittent claudication in those with peripheral vascular disease – it inhibits PDE3. Side effects include headache and diarrhea.
- Alzheimer's disease drugs include the anticholinesterase inhibitors, rivastigmine, galantamine and donepezil; and NMDA receptor antagonists, such as memantine.
- Triptans (for example: sumatriptan and zolmitriptan) are used to treat migraine and cluster headache; they agonise serotonin 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D
- Ipilimumab is used to treat melanoma; it works by targeting CTLA-4, a protein receptor that downregulates the immune system.
- Fexofenadine is used to treat allergy symptoms (hay fever, nasal congestion etc.); it is 2nd generation H1 blocker, less able to produce sedation when compared to first generation antihistamines.
- Other second-generation H1 receptor blockers used to treat allergy and hay fever symptoms include acrivastine, loratadine and cetirizine.
Mnemonics and mindmaps are also another great way to commit pharmacology to memory. But if you’d like to learn more about specific drug classes, check out these more detailed articles for more information.
Take two minutes to check out last week's facts here!