Each week we compile all the latest pharmacology facts released on our social media platforms. This is great pharmacology for students, as these facts are bite-sized, random, and often important facts that all students of medicine should commit to memory.
- Alprazolam is a short-acting benzodiazepine used to treat generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), panic disorder, and other anxiety disorders – it is primarily metabolized by the hepatic enzyme, CYP3A4.
- Statins (lipid lowering medicines) are associated with an increased risk of myopathies (muscle pain) and an increased risk of developing diabetes.
- Clotrimazole is an antifungal drug used to treat, among other things, vaginal yeast infections, oral thrush, ringworm and diaper rash.
- Clotrimazole works to increase the permeability of the fungal cell wall, inhibiting the biosynthesis of ergosterol.
- Clotrimazole is a CYP3A4 inhibitor (when administered orally); it has a half-life of 2 hours and may, when used orally, result in abnormal liver function tests.
- Bisphosphonates are drugs used to treat osteoporosis and other bone disorders. Examples include alendronate, zoledronate and risedronate.
- Bisphosphonates work by encouraging osteoclasts (bone-destroying cells) to undergo apoptosis.
- Atomoxetine is a drug used in the treatment of ADHD; it works to inhibit norepinephrine and serotonin transporters.
- Nitroglycerin is used to treat angina and heart failure; it is denitrated to the active ingredient nitric oxide (NO); often administered sublingually.
- Dexamethasone prevents inflammation – it is used to treat a wide array of disorders; from psoriasis and lupus, to ulcerative colitis and asthma.
- Dexamethasone has also been used to encourage maturation of fetal lungs and for high altitude cerebral/pulmonary edema (HACE)/(HAPE).
- Orlistat is used to treat obesity; it prevents fats from being absorbed (a lipase inhibitor). Infamous for its gastrointestinal side effects, which include oily stools (steatorrhea) and flatulence.
Mnemonics and mindmaps are also another great way to commit pharmacology to memory. But if you’d like to learn more about specific drug classes, check out these more detailed articles for more information.
Take two minutes to check out last week's facts here!